By Cyrielle Marjolaine. Amplifier. Publised at Sunday, January 07th 2018, 15:24:23 PM. As I mentioned earlier there is a third "ground" the case or chassis. Here there can be two distinct issues. As part of many electrical codes all exposed metal parts of AC mains electrically powered equipment must be either connected to the "earth" ground or doubly insulated from any electrical connections. This is to protect the user in case there is an internal failure. Any potentially dangerous voltages will be "grounded" to the earth. So I use three wire connections all the time. The "earth" ground from the AC mains is directly connected to the chassis at the entry point. As a note of interest I also use the standard IEC connectors that are found on nearly all personal computers to connect to the AC mains. This makes it easy to move equipment around and you do not have the AC cord permanently affixed to the equipment. In addition to protecting the user from shock hazards, the case now acts as an EMI shield. Any external EMI is diverted to the earth ground via the power cord.
By Sasha Sara. Amplifier. Publised at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 23:51:43 PM. First and probably the most important thing I learned is all grounds should not go directly to the chassis. This seems contrary to logic. A little side trip into electricity and conductors is appropriate now. Any conductor has some finite resistance and anytime some current is passed through it a voltage will be correspondingly created. Actually the voltage is first, but in this case we want to concentrate on the current. In a typical piece of audio equipment (most everything else as well) there are usually three distinct ground circuits. The first is obvious, the signal ground, the second is the power supply ground and third and often ignored is the case or chassis ground. Each has a particular function and all interact. The signal ground usual and primary function is to provide a return path for the audio. Likewise the power supply ground is the return path for the power used by the circuitry. The case ground I will cover a bit later. Remembering that anytime current flows through a conductor it will cause a voltage, let us see what happens if you mix the signal and power grounds. Each will generate a proportional corresponding voltage. So for an example: the conductor is a piece of wire that has a 1 ohm resistance, the signal voltage (and thus its return) has one millivolt (mV)of amplitude and the power supply is causing a flow of 100 milliamperes (mA) through the wire. The contribution to the voltages on the conductor is then, 1 mV for the signal and 0.1 Ampere times 1 ohm equals 100 mV for the power - see Ohm Law for equations. Since it is really unlikely that the power is perfectly clean DC it will contaminate the signal with hum and noise. Even a 1% noise level in the DC will result in a noise voltage equal to the signal voltage. I grant that this is a gross simplification, but it does illustrate the situation. So my rule number one is to absolutely avoid having any ground conductor handling both signal and power. So how do you do this? I find that a sort of modular arrangement is best. This does not mean that the physical components ca not be on the same board though. What it does mean is that the power supply is wired independently from the active signal portion. Eventually these grounds need to connect, but I will get to that later.
By Cyrielle Marjolaine. Amplifier. Publised at Wednesday, December 27th 2017, 04:53:46 AM. An input signal will cause the transistor to operate as normal in its Active region thereby eliminating any crossover distortion which is present in class B configurations. A small Collector current will flow when there is no input signal but it is much less than that for the Class A amplifier configuration.
By Madeleine Catherine. Motor. Published at Sunday, December 31st 2017, 15:23:47 PM. The choice of a power supply is determined by voltage, current, and power supply type (i.e. switching versus linear, regulated versus unregulated, etc.). By far the most problematic and complicated factor is voltage, which will be discussed last.
By Madeleine Catherine. Circuit. Published at Sunday, December 31st 2017, 14:51:43 PM. The concept of complex impedance introduces a unified representation for resistors, capacitors, and inductors, whereby a circuit’s frequency response from input to output can be determined using KVL and KCL, where each element is assigned the appropriate impedance. The key assumption to this point is that the input to the circuit must consist solely of DC and/or sinusoidal signals. Now, this analysis is be extended to include arbitrary input signals by using the mathematical techniques of Laplace transforms.
By Jessica Mireille. Car Wiring. Published at Sunday, December 31st 2017, 12:05:54 PM. In the unfortunate case of a fire, and it does happen, you can remove all of the old wiring and what they were attached to, and reinstall all new switches, gauges, ignition box, and so on, and the wiring will be ready to install quickly and easily.
By Madeleine Catherine. Motor. Published at Sunday, December 31st 2017, 11:43:49 AM. The effect of uncompensated mid-band resonance. Though it is possible to accelerate through the resonant region, it is not possible to operate the motor continuously in the speed band without mid-band resonance compensation. This is because the oscillation that causes the motor to stall takes from half a second to 10 seconds to build to amplitude sufficient to stall the motor.
By Cyrielle Marjolaine. Diagram. Published at Sunday, December 31st 2017, 06:27:36 AM. The voltage source, such as a battery, is needed in order to cause the current to flow through the circuit. In addition, there needs to be a conductive path that provides a route for the electricity to flow. Finally, a proper circuit needs a load that consumes the power.
By Bertille Solange. Diagram. Published at Saturday, December 30th 2017, 23:20:44 PM. There are two commonly used capacitor symbols. One symbol represents a polarized (usually electrolytic or tantalum) capacitor, and the other is for non-polarized caps. In each case there are two terminals, running perpendicularly into plates. The symbol with one curved plate indicates that the capacitor is polarized. The curved plate represents the cathode of the capacitor, which should be at a lower voltage than the positive, anode pin. A plus sign might also be added to the positive pin of the polarized capacitor symbol.
By Sasha Sara. Car Wiring. Published at Saturday, December 30th 2017, 22:08:32 PM. Where wires run side-by-side they are bound together in a bundle, in a plastic or fabric sheath, to keep them tidy and less difficult to fit. This bundle of wires stretches over the length of the car, with single wires or small groups of wires emerging where necessary, and is called the wiring loom.
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