By Madeleine Catherine. Motor. Publised at Friday, February 16th 2018, 19:44:59 PM. Eddy current and hysteresis heating are collectively called iron losses. The former induces currents in the iron of the motor while the latter is caused by the re-alignment of the magnetic domains in the iron. You can think of this as “friction heating” as the magnetic dipoles in the iron switch back and forth. Either way, both cause the bulk heating of the motor. Iron losses are a function of AC current and therefore the power supply voltage.
By Bertille Solange. Motor. Publised at Saturday, February 17th 2018, 09:14:27 AM. Motor output doubles when the power supply voltage is doubled for either series or parallel-wired motors. Notice that a parallel-connected motor delivers performance identical to a series-connected motor running at twice the power supply voltage.
By Madeleine Catherine. Motor. Publised at Monday, February 12th 2018, 01:28:28 AM. Inductance (L) has a property called inductive reactance, which for the purposes of this discussion may be thought of as a resistance proportional to frequency and therefore motor speed. According to Ohm’s law, current is equal to voltage divided by resistance. In this case we substitute inductive reactance for resistance in Ohm’s law and conclude motor current is the inverse of motor speed. Since torque is proportional to ampere-turns (current times the number of turns of wire in the winding), and current is the inverse of speed, torque also has to be the inverse of speed. In an ideal step motor, as speed approaches zero, its torque would approach infinity while at infinite speed torque would be zero. Because current is proportional to torque, motor current would be infinite at zero as well.
By Madeleine Catherine. Diagram. Published at Tuesday, December 19th 2017, 01:28:27 AM. A schematic shows connections in a circuit in a way that is clear and standardized. It is a way of communicating to other engineers exactly what components are involved in a circuit as well as how they are connected. A good schematic will show component names and values, and provide labels for sections or components to help communicate the intended purpose. Note how connections on wires (or "nets") are shown using dots and non-connections are shown without a dot.
By Madeleine Catherine. Diode. Published at Tuesday, December 19th 2017, 01:03:57 AM. Check valves are essentially pressure-operated devices: they open and allow flow if the pressure across them is of the correct “polarity” to open the gate (in the analogy shown, greater fluid pressure on the right than on the left). If the pressure is of the opposite “polarity,” the pressure difference across the check valve will close and hold the gate so that no flow occurs.
By Jessica Mireille. Motor. Published at Tuesday, December 19th 2017, 00:50:09 AM. To prevent this, the drive must be set to limit the motor current to its rated value. Because torque is proportional to current, motor torque is constant from zero speed to the corner speed. Above the corner speed, motor current is limited by the motor’s inductive reactance.
By Jessica Mireille. Diagram. Published at Tuesday, December 19th 2017, 00:43:41 AM. On all but the simplest PCBs, wires must be printed on more than one surface of fiberglass to allow for all the required component interconnections. Each surface containing printed wires is called a layer. In a relatively simple PCB that requires only two layers, only one piece of fiberglass is required since wires can be printed on both sides. In a more complex PCB where several layers are required, individual circuit boards are manufactured separately and then laminated together to form one multi-layer circuit board. To connect wires on two or more layers, small holes called vias are drilled through the wires and fiberglass board at the point where the wires on the different layers cross. The interior surface of these holes is coated with metal so that electric current can flow through the vias. Most Digilent boards are simple four or six layer boards; some more complex computer circuit boards have more than 20 layers.
By Jessica Mireille. Diagram. Published at Tuesday, December 19th 2017, 00:40:08 AM. Variable resistors and potentiometers each augment the standard resistor symbol with an arrow. The variable resistor remains a two-terminal device, so the arrow is just laid diagonally across the middle. A potentiometer is a three-terminal device, so the arrow becomes the third terminal (the wiper).
By Cyrielle Marjolaine. Circuit. Published at Tuesday, December 19th 2017, 00:33:07 AM. Physical circuits are constructed of real, physical devices. They can be inspected, tested, and modified. They consume electric power when energized, and they can function properly and do some meaningful work, or they can malfunction and create serious hazards to health and property. Even small circuits that are quickly and easily constructed still take time and money to build, and they can take a very long time to perfect.
By Cyrielle Marjolaine. Diagram. Published at Tuesday, December 19th 2017, 00:21:22 AM. The unloaded PCB appears green because thin sheets of green plastic have been applied to both sides (otherwise the PCB would appear pale yellow). Called solder masks, these sheets cover all exposed metal other than the component pads and holes so that errant solder can not inadvertently short (or electrically connect) the printed wires. All metal surfaces other than the exposed pads and holes (i.e., the wires) are underneath the solder mask. Not infrequently, blue or even red solder masks are used.
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