The schematic symbol of the diode is such that the anode (pointing end) corresponds to the P-type semiconductor at (a). The cathode bar, non-pointing end, at (b) corresponds to the N-type material at (a). Also note that the cathode stripe on the physical part (c) corresponds to the cathode on the symbol.
Modern silicon diodes are generally produced using one of various versions of the planar process, also used for manufacturing transistors and integrated circuits. The layered construction used in Silicon Planar methods give a number of advantages such as predictable performance and reliability as well as being advantageous to mass production.
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