Electrically, a real motor differs from an ideal one primarily by having a non-zero winding resistance. Also, the iron in the motor is subject to magnetic saturation, as well as having eddy current and hysteresis losses. Magnetic saturation sets a limit on current to torque proportionally while eddy current and hysteresis (iron losses) along with winding resistance (copper losses) cause motor heating.
An ideal step motor would have zero mechanical friction, its torque would be proportional to ampere-turns and its only electrical characteristic would be inductance. Ampere-turns simply mean that torque is proportional to the number of turns of wire in the motor’s stator multiplied by the current passing through those turns of wire.
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