Resistors, capacitors, and inductors are the fundamental components of electronic circuits. In fact, all electronic circuits can be equivalently represented by circuits of these three components together with voltage and current sources.
Impedance essentially can be viewed as frequency-dependent resistance. While resistance of a circuit is the instantaneous ratio between voltage and current, impedance of a circuit is the ratio between voltage and current for steady-state sinusoidal signals, which can vary with of frequency. As the later parts of this section will show, the voltage and current caused by applying a steady-state sinusoidal signal to any combination of resistors, capacitors, and inductors, are related by a constant factor and a phase shift. Therefore, impedance can be expressed by a complex constant using an extended version Ohm’s law.
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