By Cyrielle Marjolaine. Power. Publised at Monday, December 18th 2017, 10:47:11 AM. This hierarchy means that a linear regulator will normally try to operate in "constant voltage" mode, where the voltage error amplifier is regulating the output voltage to a fixed value. However, this assumes that both the load current and junction temperature are below their limit threshold values.
By Charlotte Myriam. Diagram. Published at Monday, January 08th 2018, 06:28:36 AM. In a digital circuit, power supply voltage levels are constrained to two distinct values – “logic high voltage” (called LHV or Vdd) and “logic low voltage” (called LLV or GND). The GND node in any circuit is the universal reference voltage against which all other voltages are measured (in modern digital circuits, GND is typically the lowest voltage in the circuit). In a schematic, it is often difficult to show lines connecting all GND nodes; rather, any nodes labeled GND are assumed to be connected into the same node. Often, a downward pointing triangle symbol, is attached to a GND node in addition to (or instead of) the GND label. The Vdd node in a digital circuit is typically the highest voltage, and all nodes labeled Vdd are tied together into the same node. Vdd may be thought of as the “source” of positive charges in a circuit, and GND may be thought of as the “source” of negative charges in a circuit. In modern digital systems, Vdd and GND are separated by anywhere from 1 to 5 volts. Older or inexpensive circuits typically use 5 volts, while newer circuits use 1-3 volts.
By Jessica Mireille. Motor. Published at Monday, January 08th 2018, 06:04:44 AM. The power output decreases with speed because of the constant-torque loss due to detent torque and other losses. The same effect causes a slight decrease in torque with speed in the constant torque region as well. Finally, there is a rounding of the torque curve at the corner speed because the drive gradually transitions from being a current source to being a voltage source. The drive limits current to the motor below the corner speed and thus is a current source. Above the corner speed, the motor’s inductive reactance limits the current and the drive becomes a voltage source as it applies all of the power supply voltage to the motor.
By Alix Loane. Car Wiring. Published at Sunday, January 07th 2018, 18:08:21 PM. Plan out your wiring. Choose the path the wires will follow. Choose the locations of all of your switches, gauges, ignition box, battery, and charging posts. If your past layout was deficient, now is the time to rethink the entire plan.
By Valentine Sybille. Car Wiring. Published at Sunday, January 07th 2018, 17:51:35 PM. As for the gauges, new designs are coming out all the time. If you have a hard time seeing your gauges at night, then the new brightly lit types might be the thing to now install. According to Dick, it is important to use a high-quality tachometer. Accuracy of rpm is very important to choosing the right gear.
By Cyrielle Marjolaine. Circuit. Published at Sunday, January 07th 2018, 17:01:25 PM. A collection of electronic components that have been assembled and interconnected to perform a given function is commonly referred to as a circuit. The word circuit derives from the fact that electric power must flow from the positive terminal of a power source through one or more electronic devices and back to the negative terminal of a power source, thereby forming a circuit. If the connections between an electronic device and either the positive or negative terminals of a power supply are interrupted, the circuit will be broken and the device will not function.
By Cyrielle Marjolaine. Amplifier. Published at Sunday, January 07th 2018, 15:24:23 PM. Unfortunately we are not quite done yet. I mentioned the concept of a ground loop earlier. This is a particularly insidious problem that can easily ruin a good project. In very general terms it is formed whenever there are multiple signal ground paths to the same termination. I can be internal or external to the piece of equipment. The most frequent result is a hum that either will not go away or happens only when something is connected to the piece of equipment. I need now to provide a few brief words about hum. If the hum is at the same frequency as the AC mains (either 50 or 60 Hz typically) then it is likely from interconnections external to the equipment or poor shielding internal to the equipment. If the hum is at twice the mains frequency then it nearly always because of inadequate power supply filtering. Ground loops are usually at the mains frequency. So if you encounter one, then you must search for the alternate ground paths that relate to the signal chain. If it external (occurs only when the equipment is attached to an external item), then check for things like phonograph grounding at the phonograph end. As an example I have seen is when one terminal of a cartridge connected to the ground in the tone arm (OK and fairly common) and a separate ground from the same tone arm (not OK) is provided for connection to the amplifier chassis ground (this is not to be confused to the situation when there is a separate ground wire from the phonograph chassis that has no connection to the ground in the cartridge). Since both the signal ground and tone arm ground are connected at the phonograph they will form a ground loop (between the shields and ground wire) when connected to the amplifier. The solution in such cases is to separate the grounds at the phonograph. An internal example was mentioned earlier when both ends of internal shielded cables are joined in two different places (at the input jacks and volume control). The irony of the situation and part of the insidious nature of ground loops is that they can on occasion be benign and not cause hum. They can later show up when a new piece of equipment is attached to the system. In all cases however, they have the same fundamental cause, alternate paths for the signal return.
By Jessica Mireille. Car Wiring. Published at Sunday, January 07th 2018, 14:25:22 PM. Now that you have a good idea of how you want to wire your car, the routes, the connections, and the switches and gauges, think about duplicating the wiring just in case you need it.
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