By Charlotte Myriam. Diagram. Publised at Monday, November 20th 2017, 05:12:37 AM. In contrast to digital circuits, analog circuits use signals whose voltage levels are not constrained to two distinct levels, but instead can assume any value between Vdd and GND. Many input devices, particularly those using electronic sensors (e.g., microphones, cameras, thermometers, pressure sensors, motion and proximity detectors, etc.) produce analog voltages at their outputs. In modern electronic devices, it is likely that such signals will be converted to digital signals before they are used within the device. For example, a digital voice-memo recording device uses an analog microphone circuit to convert sound pressure waves into voltage waves on an internal circuit node. A special circuit called an analog-to-digital converter, or ADC, converts that analog voltage to a binary number that can be represented as a bus in a digital circuit. An ADC functions by taking samples of the input analog signal, measuring the magnitude of the input voltage signal (usually with reference to GND), and assigning a binary number to the measured magnitude. Once an analog signal has been converted to a binary number, a bus can carry that digital information around a circuit. In a similar manner, digital signals can be reconstituted into analog signals using a digital-to-analog converter. Thus, a binary number that represents a sample of an audio waveform can be converted to an analog signal that can, for example, drive a speaker.
By Valentine Sybille. Motor. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 09:08:58 AM. Anytime there are turns of wire surrounding a magnetic material such as the iron in the motor’s stator, it will have an electrical property called inductance. Inductance describes the energy stored in a magnetic field anytime current passes through this coil of wire.
By Bertille Solange. Circuit. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 09:04:42 AM. The concept of complex impedance introduces a unified representation for resistors, capacitors, and inductors, whereby a circuit’s frequency response from input to output can be determined using KVL and KCL, where each element is assigned the appropriate impedance. The key assumption to this point is that the input to the circuit must consist solely of DC and/or sinusoidal signals. Now, this analysis is be extended to include arbitrary input signals by using the mathematical techniques of Laplace transforms.
By Bertille Solange. Circuit. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 07:58:11 AM. Impedance essentially can be viewed as frequency-dependent resistance. While resistance of a circuit is the instantaneous ratio between voltage and current, impedance of a circuit is the ratio between voltage and current for steady-state sinusoidal signals, which can vary with of frequency. As the later parts of this section will show, the voltage and current caused by applying a steady-state sinusoidal signal to any combination of resistors, capacitors, and inductors, are related by a constant factor and a phase shift. Therefore, impedance can be expressed by a complex constant using an extended version Ohm’s law.
By Charlotte Myriam. Amplifier. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 07:53:55 AM. This means then that the transistor will be “ON” for more than half a cycle of the waveform. This type of amplifier configuration improves both the efficiency and linearity of the amplifier circuit compared to a pure Class A configuration.
By Cyrielle Marjolaine. Diagram. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 07:36:43 AM. Circuits often require output devices to communicate their state to an user. Examples of electronic output devices include computer monitors, LCD alphanumeric panels (as on a calculator), small lamps or light-emitting diodes (LED), etc. Digilent boards include different output devices, but all of them include some number of individual LED, and seven-segment LED displays that can display the digits 0-9 in each digit position (each segment in the seven-segment display contains a single LED). LED are two-terminal semiconductor devices that conduct current in only one direction (from the anode to the cathode). The small LED chips are secured inside a plastic housing, and they emit light at a givenfrequency (RED, YELLOW, etc.) when a small electric current (typically 10mA to 25mA) flows through them.
By Charlotte Myriam. Motor. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 07:36:40 AM. If you are using several different models of motors on the same power supply use the lowest inductance rating in the above formula. This will ensure that your motors will not overheat due to the voltage being too high.
By Valentine Sybille. Diagram. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 07:35:16 AM. There are two commonly used capacitor symbols. One symbol represents a polarized (usually electrolytic or tantalum) capacitor, and the other is for non-polarized caps. In each case there are two terminals, running perpendicularly into plates. The symbol with one curved plate indicates that the capacitor is polarized. The curved plate represents the cathode of the capacitor, which should be at a lower voltage than the positive, anode pin. A plus sign might also be added to the positive pin of the polarized capacitor symbol.
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