By Madeleine Catherine. Circuit. Publised at Sunday, December 17th 2017, 00:43:41 AM. Electric circuits use electric power to perform some function, like energize a heating or lighting element, turn a motor, or create an electromagnetic filed. Electronic circuits differ from electric circuits in that they use devices that can themselves be controlled by other electric signals. Restated, electronic circuits are built from devices that use electricity to control electricity. Most electronic circuits use signals that are within 5 to 10 volts of ground; most circuits built within the past several years use signals that are within 3 to 5 volts from ground. Some electronic circuits represent information encoded as continuous voltage levels that can wander between the high and low voltage supply rails – these are called analog circuits. As an example, a sound pressure level transducer (i.e. a microphone) might drive a signal between 0V and 3.3V in direct proportion to the detected sound pressure level. In this case, the voltage signal output from the microphone is said to be an analog ifthe sound pressure wave itself. Other circuits use only two distinct voltage levels to represent information. Most often, these two voltage levels use the same voltages supplied by the power rails. In these circuits, called digital circuits, all information must be represented as binary numbers, with a signal at 0V (or ground) representing one kind of information, and a signal at 3.3V (or whatever the upper voltage supply rail provides) representing the other kind of information. In this series of modules, we will confine our discussions to digital circuits.
By Madeleine Catherine. Circuit. Publised at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 07:11:55 AM. Surface mount PCBs do not utilize wires as connectors. Instead, many small leads are soldered directly to the board, meaning that the board itself is used as a wiring surface for the different components. This allows circuits to be completed using less space, freeing up space to allow the board to complete more functions, usually at higher speeds and a lighter weight than a through-hole board would allow.
By Lydie Honorine. Power. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 13:24:59 PM. Linear regulators are simple voltage regulator circuits commonly used in electronics. This paper briefly discusses how linear regulators work, their advantages and disadvantages, variations on the linear regulator, and important datasheet parameters.
By Madeleine Catherine. Amplifier. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 13:03:24 PM. So if you have followed everything so far, we have three separate grounds; the signal return, the power supply return, and the chassis. I find that all must interconnect at a single place to avoid having any conductor contaminated with something from one of the others. I suppose that putting signal on a power conductor would not be likely to cause the power supply any problems, but the reverse results in serious issues.
By Jessica Mireille. Power. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 11:44:41 AM. In cases where thermal limiting occurs, both the output voltage and current will be reduced. When the output voltage drops below its nominal value, the error signal appearing at the voltage error amplifier will cause it to try and correct the regulator output voltage by driving its output high (and sourcing more current to the pass transistor).
By Madeleine Catherine. Circuit. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 10:11:25 AM. The circuits and components of a double-layer PCB board are usually connected in one of two ways: either utilizing a through-hole or with the use of a surface-mount. A through-hole connection means that small wires, known as leads, are fed through the holes, with each end of the leads then soldered to the right component.
By Valentine Sybille. Diagram. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 09:36:01 AM. Several different resistors are used on Digilent boards. Some are used to limit LED current, and some are used on inputs (like the button and switch circuits) to both limit the currents flowing to the main chip, and to help protect against electrostatic discharge (or ESD – more on this topic later). The resistors on the Digilent boards, like most resistors used in digital systems, are physically small because they will not encounter large voltages or currents. For these smaller resistors, the resistor value in Ohms is printed in microscopic numbers on the resistor body, not visible to the naked eye.
By Valentine Sybille. Power. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 09:34:55 AM. Voltage regulation is the process of holding a voltage steady under conditions of changing applied voltage and changing load current. Many electronic systems require a stable power supply voltage and use voltage regulators to accomplish that.
By Jessica Mireille. Diagram. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 09:20:41 AM. There are two commonly used capacitor symbols. One symbol represents a polarized (usually electrolytic or tantalum) capacitor, and the other is for non-polarized caps. In each case there are two terminals, running perpendicularly into plates. The symbol with one curved plate indicates that the capacitor is polarized. The curved plate represents the cathode of the capacitor, which should be at a lower voltage than the positive, anode pin. A plus sign might also be added to the positive pin of the polarized capacitor symbol.
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