By Cyrielle Marjolaine. Motor. Publised at Thursday, June 08th 2017, 14:32:37 PM. As shown earlier, motor output power is proportional to power supply voltage, doubling the voltage doubles the output power. However, iron losses outpace motor power by increasing non-linearly with increasing power supply voltage. Eventually the point is reached where the iron losses are so great that the motor cannot dissipate the heat generated. In a way this is nature’s way of keeping someone from getting 500HP from a NEMA 23 motor by using a 10kV power supply.
By Valentine Sybille. Circuit. Published at Tuesday, January 09th 2018, 17:51:25 PM. In some circuits, there are virtual grounds, which are nodes at the same voltage as ground, but are not connected to a power supply. When current flows into the virtual ground, the voltage at the virtual ground may change relative to the real ground, and the consequences of this situation must be analyzed carefully.
By Jessica Mireille. Car Wiring. Published at Tuesday, January 09th 2018, 14:36:01 PM. This is called a negative earth system, and when buying an electrical accessory a radio, for example check that it is of a type suitable for your cars system. Fitting a radio with the incorrect polarity will damage the set, but most car radios have an external switch for setting the polarity to suit that of the car. Switch to the correct setting before fitting.
By Charlotte Myriam. Diagram. Published at Tuesday, January 09th 2018, 00:41:41 AM. The slide switches are also known as “single throw-double pole” (STDP) switches, because only one switch (or throw) exists, but two positions (or poles) are available (a pole is an electrical contact to which the switch can make contact). These switches can be set to output either Vdd (when the actuator is closest to the board’s edge) or GND. The push button switches are also known as “momentary” contact buttons, because they only make contact while they are actively being pressed – they output a GND at rest, and a Vdd only when they are being pressed. The figure below shows typically pushbutton and slide switch circuits used on Digilent boards.
By Lydie Honorine. Diagram. Published at Monday, January 08th 2018, 17:19:46 PM. On all but the simplest PCBs, wires must be printed on more than one surface of fiberglass to allow for all the required component interconnections. Each surface containing printed wires is called a layer. In a relatively simple PCB that requires only two layers, only one piece of fiberglass is required since wires can be printed on both sides. In a more complex PCB where several layers are required, individual circuit boards are manufactured separately and then laminated together to form one multi-layer circuit board. To connect wires on two or more layers, small holes called vias are drilled through the wires and fiberglass board at the point where the wires on the different layers cross. The interior surface of these holes is coated with metal so that electric current can flow through the vias. Most Digilent boards are simple four or six layer boards; some more complex computer circuit boards have more than 20 layers.
By Valentine Sybille. Diagram. Published at Monday, January 08th 2018, 15:30:16 PM. A digital circuit requires a power supply to provide a constant and stable source of electric power to all devices. As discussed above, electric power is derived from the basic electrical forces that charged particles (e.g., protons and electrons) exert on one another – namely, electrons are repelled by other electrons, and attracted to more electrically positive areas where there are relatively fewer electrons. The vast majority of charged particles are found in ordinary matter bound in electrically neutral atomic structures (that is, most particles are found in structures that have an equal number of positive and negative particles). Some electrically neutral conducting materials (like metals) contain electrons that are not so tightly bound to their host atoms. If a voltage source is applied to these materials, the lightly bound electrons will move away from the concentrated source of electrons on the negative side of the supply towards the electrically positive side of the supply. A “power supply” in a digital circuit provides a local, contained imbalance of electrons that provides a voltage source that can do useful work, such as transmitting information through a conductor from one device to another. A digital circuit allows a controlled flow of electrons from of the negative to positive side of the power supply, but only via the paths designed into the circuit. As electrons flow to and from the devices in a given circuit, they can change device properties in useful ways.
By Cyrielle Marjolaine. Diagram. Published at Monday, January 08th 2018, 11:14:03 AM. Inductors are usually represented by either a series of curved bumps, or loopy coils. International symbols may just define an inductor as a filled-in rectangle.
By Lydie Honorine. Motor. Published at Monday, January 08th 2018, 09:46:13 AM. Inductance (L) has a property called inductive reactance, which for the purposes of this discussion may be thought of as a resistance proportional to frequency and therefore motor speed. According to Ohm’s law, current is equal to voltage divided by resistance. In this case we substitute inductive reactance for resistance in Ohm’s law and conclude motor current is the inverse of motor speed. Since torque is proportional to ampere-turns (current times the number of turns of wire in the winding), and current is the inverse of speed, torque also has to be the inverse of speed. In an ideal step motor, as speed approaches zero, its torque would approach infinity while at infinite speed torque would be zero. Because current is proportional to torque, motor current would be infinite at zero as well.
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