By Valentine Sybille. Circuit. Publised at Saturday, December 23rd 2017, 04:38:48 AM. Since single-layer/single-sided PCBs only have their various circuits and electrical components soldered onto one side, they are easy to design and manufacture. This popularity means that they can be purchased at a low-cost, especially for high-volume orders. The low-cost, high volume model means they are commonly used for a variety of applications, including calculators, cameras, radio and stereo equipment, solid state drives, printers and power supplies.
By Madeleine Catherine. Diagram. Publised at Saturday, December 23rd 2017, 20:46:14 PM. A digital circuit requires a power supply to provide a constant and stable source of electric power to all devices. As discussed above, electric power is derived from the basic electrical forces that charged particles (e.g., protons and electrons) exert on one another – namely, electrons are repelled by other electrons, and attracted to more electrically positive areas where there are relatively fewer electrons. The vast majority of charged particles are found in ordinary matter bound in electrically neutral atomic structures (that is, most particles are found in structures that have an equal number of positive and negative particles). Some electrically neutral conducting materials (like metals) contain electrons that are not so tightly bound to their host atoms. If a voltage source is applied to these materials, the lightly bound electrons will move away from the concentrated source of electrons on the negative side of the supply towards the electrically positive side of the supply. A “power supply” in a digital circuit provides a local, contained imbalance of electrons that provides a voltage source that can do useful work, such as transmitting information through a conductor from one device to another. A digital circuit allows a controlled flow of electrons from of the negative to positive side of the power supply, but only via the paths designed into the circuit. As electrons flow to and from the devices in a given circuit, they can change device properties in useful ways.
By Madeleine Catherine. Diagram. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 06:12:51 AM. As discussed earlier, a digital circuit represents and manipulates information encoded as electric signals that can assume one of two voltages – logic-high voltage (or Vdd) and logic-low voltage (or GND). A digital circuit requires a power supply that can produce these two voltages, and these same supply voltages are also used to encode information in the form of two-state, or binary signals. Thus,if a given circuit node is at Vdd, then that signal is said to carry a logic ‘1’; if the node is at GND, then the node carries a logic ‘0’. The components in digital circuits are simple on/off switches that can pass logic ‘1’ and logic ‘0’ signals from one circuit node to another. Most typically, these switches are arranged to combine input signals to produce an output signal according to basic logic relationships. For example, one well-known logic circuit is an AND gate that combines two input signals to produce an output that is the logic AND of the inputs (i.e., if both input1 and input2 are a ‘1’, then the output is a ‘1’).
By Lydie Honorine. Diagram. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 04:37:22 AM. Variable resistors and potentiometers each augment the standard resistor symbol with an arrow. The variable resistor remains a two-terminal device, so the arrow is just laid diagonally across the middle. A potentiometer is a three-terminal device, so the arrow becomes the third terminal (the wiper).
By Lydie Honorine. Circuit. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 04:03:26 AM. Resistors, capacitors, and inductors are the fundamental components of electronic circuits. In fact, all electronic circuits can be equivalently represented by circuits of these three components together with voltage and current sources.
By Jessica Mireille. Diagram. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 02:59:42 AM. Now’s the fun stuff. Completing an electrical engineering degree and then getting a job in the field means you will see a lot a lot a lot of these schematics. It’s important to understand exactly what is going on with these. While they can (and will) get very complex, these are just a few of the common graphics to get your footing on.
By Lydie Honorine. Circuit. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 02:51:03 AM. Electronic signals are represented either by voltage or current. The timedependent characteristics of voltage or current signals can take a number of forms including DC, sinusoidal (also known as AC), square wave, linear ramps, and pulsewidth modulated signals. Sinusoidal signals are perhaps the most important signal forms since once the circuit response to sinusoidal signals are known, the result can be generalized to predict how the circuit will respond to a much greater variety of signals using the mathematical tools of Fourier and Laplace transforms.
By Valentine Sybille. Circuit. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 02:19:23 AM. Electric circuits use electric power to perform some function, like energize a heating or lighting element, turn a motor, or create an electromagnetic filed. Electronic circuits differ from electric circuits in that they use devices that can themselves be controlled by other electric signals. Restated, electronic circuits are built from devices that use electricity to control electricity. Most electronic circuits use signals that are within 5 to 10 volts of ground; most circuits built within the past several years use signals that are within 3 to 5 volts from ground. Some electronic circuits represent information encoded as continuous voltage levels that can wander between the high and low voltage supply rails – these are called analog circuits. As an example, a sound pressure level transducer (i.e. a microphone) might drive a signal between 0V and 3.3V in direct proportion to the detected sound pressure level. In this case, the voltage signal output from the microphone is said to be an analog ifthe sound pressure wave itself. Other circuits use only two distinct voltage levels to represent information. Most often, these two voltage levels use the same voltages supplied by the power rails. In these circuits, called digital circuits, all information must be represented as binary numbers, with a signal at 0V (or ground) representing one kind of information, and a signal at 3.3V (or whatever the upper voltage supply rail provides) representing the other kind of information. In this series of modules, we will confine our discussions to digital circuits.
By Jessica Mireille. Diagram. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 01:23:17 AM. Wiring diagrams use standard symbols for wiring devices, usually different from those used on schematic diagrams. The electrical symbols not only show where something is to be installed, but also what type of device is being installed. For example, a surface ceiling light is shown by one symbol, a recessed ceiling light has a different symbol, and a surface fluorescent light has another symbol. Each type of switch has a different symbol and so do the various outlets. There are symbols that show the location of smoke detectors, the doorbell chime, and thermostat. On large projects symbols may be numbered to show, for example, the panel board and circuit to which the device connects, and also to identify which of several types of fixture are to be installed at that location.
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