By Cyrielle Marjolaine. Power. Publised at Tuesday, December 19th 2017, 11:49:21 AM. The Low-dropout (LDO) regulator differs from the Standard regulator in that the pass device of the LDO is made up of only a single PNP transistor.
By Bertille Solange. Diagram. Published at Wednesday, December 27th 2017, 00:30:05 AM. Electronic components are often assembled and interconnected on a flat surface known as a circuit board. The several types of existing circuit boards may be divided into two broad categories: those intended for prototype or experimental circuits; and those intended for production and/or commercial sale. Circuit boards used for experimental work are often referred to as breadboards or protoboards. Breadboards allow engineers to construct circuits quickly, so that they can be studied and modified until an optimal design is discovered. In a typical breadboard use, components and wires are added to a circuit in an ad hoc manner as the design proceeds, with new data and new understanding dictating the course of the design. Since breadboard circuits exist only in the laboratory, no special consideration need be given to creating reliable or simple-to-manufacture circuits – the designer can focus exclusively on the circuits behavior. In contrast, circuit boards intended for production or commercial sale must have highly reliable wires and interconnects, permanent bonds to all components, and topographies amenable to mass production and thorough testing. And further, they must be made of a material that is reliable, low-cost, and easy to manufacture. A fiberglass substratewith copper wires (etched from laminated copper sheets) has been the PCB material of choice for the past several decades. The Digilent board is a simple example of such a board. Note that most often, production circuit board designs are finalized only after extensive breadboard phases. Components are permanently affixed to production boards using the soldering process.
By Jessica Mireille. Power. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 23:57:09 PM. The output resistance (also known as source resistance) of a voltage regulator is a close cousin of its load regulation. Figure 1 illustrates how the output voltage of a regulator typically changes as a function of load current. Initially, the slope is quite linear but once the load current becomes higher than the design then the voltage will often drop rapidly with an increase in current. We measure the output resistance only on the linear portion of the plot in the normal operating region. It is meaningless to use a point in the overload area as that will result in an artificially high output resistance.
By Sasha Sara. Amplifier. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 23:51:43 PM. So if you have followed everything so far, we have three separate grounds; the signal return, the power supply return, and the chassis. I find that all must interconnect at a single place to avoid having any conductor contaminated with something from one of the others. I suppose that putting signal on a power conductor would not be likely to cause the power supply any problems, but the reverse results in serious issues.
By Alix Loane. Circuit. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 21:47:43 PM. There are two kinds of energy sources in electronic circuits: voltage sources and current sources. When connected to an electronic circuit, an ideal voltage source maintains a given voltage between its two terminals by providing any amount of current necessary to do so. Similarly, an ideal current source maintains a given current to a circuit by providing any amount of voltage across its terminals necessary to do so.
By Alix Loane. Diagram. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 21:46:31 PM. The unloaded PCB appears green because thin sheets of green plastic have been applied to both sides (otherwise the PCB would appear pale yellow). Called solder masks, these sheets cover all exposed metal other than the component pads and holes so that errant solder can not inadvertently short (or electrically connect) the printed wires. All metal surfaces other than the exposed pads and holes (i.e., the wires) are underneath the solder mask. Not infrequently, blue or even red solder masks are used.
By Alix Loane. Circuit. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 21:42:25 PM. Many different types of components and devices can be found in modern circuits, including resistors, capacitors, and inductors, semiconductor devices like diodes, transistors, and integrated circuits, transducers like microphones, light sensors and motions sensors, actuators like motors and solenoids, and various other devices like heating and lighting elements. Devices in a circuit are connected to one another by means of electrical conductors, or wires. These wires can move electric currents between various points in a circuit. Once a wire connects two or more devices, the wire and all attached device connectors are said to form a single circuit node or net. Any electrical activity on a given net is communicated to all devices attached to the net. Certain nets provide electric power to devices, and other nets carry information between devices. Nets that carry information are called signals, and signals transport information encoded as voltage levels around a circuit. Signal nets typically use smaller conductors, and transport very small currents. Nets that carry power are called supply rails (or just supplies) and supply rails transport electric power around a circuit. Power nets typically use much larger conductors that signal nets, because they must transport larger currents.
By Valentine Sybille. Diagram. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 20:06:46 PM. Circuit components are manufactured with exposed metal pins (or leads) that are used to fasten them to the PCB both mechanically (so they will not fall off) and electrically (so current can pass between them). The soldering process, which provides a strong mechanical bond and a very good electrical connection, is used to fasten components to the PCB. During soldering, component leads are inserted through the holes in the PCB, and then the component leads and the through-hole plating metal are heated to above the melting point of the solder (about 500 to 700 degrees F). Solder (a metallic compound) is then melted and allowed to flow in and around the component lead and pad. The solder quickly cools to form a strong bond between the component and the PCB. The process of associating components with reference designators, loading them into their respective holes, and then soldering them in place comprises the PCB assembly process.
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