By Cyrielle Marjolaine. Circuit. Publised at Tuesday, January 02nd 2018, 11:25:54 AM. Impedance essentially can be viewed as frequency-dependent resistance. While resistance of a circuit is the instantaneous ratio between voltage and current, impedance of a circuit is the ratio between voltage and current for steady-state sinusoidal signals, which can vary with of frequency. As the later parts of this section will show, the voltage and current caused by applying a steady-state sinusoidal signal to any combination of resistors, capacitors, and inductors, are related by a constant factor and a phase shift. Therefore, impedance can be expressed by a complex constant using an extended version Ohm’s law.
By Lydie Honorine. Circuit. Publised at Tuesday, January 02nd 2018, 11:40:21 AM. A single-layer or single-sided PCB is one that is made out of a single layer of base material or substrate. One side of the base material is coated with a thin layer of metal. Copper is the most common coating due to how well it functions as an electrical conductor. Once the copper base plating is applied, a protective solder mask is usually applied, followed by the last silk-screen to mark out all of the elements on the board.
By Bertille Solange. Circuit. Publised at Tuesday, January 09th 2018, 21:42:21 PM. A basic understanding of electronic circuits is important even if the designer does not intend to become a proficient electrical engineer. In many real-life engineering projects, it is often necessary to communicate, and also negotiate, specifications between engineering teams having different areas of expertise. Therefore, a basic understanding of electronic circuits will allow the mechanical engineer to evaluate whether or not a given electrical specification is reasonable and feasible.
By Alix Loane. Diagram. Published at Saturday, December 30th 2017, 20:00:37 PM. In contrast to digital circuits, analog circuits use signals whose voltage levels are not constrained to two distinct levels, but instead can assume any value between Vdd and GND. Many input devices, particularly those using electronic sensors (e.g., microphones, cameras, thermometers, pressure sensors, motion and proximity detectors, etc.) produce analog voltages at their outputs. In modern electronic devices, it is likely that such signals will be converted to digital signals before they are used within the device. For example, a digital voice-memo recording device uses an analog microphone circuit to convert sound pressure waves into voltage waves on an internal circuit node. A special circuit called an analog-to-digital converter, or ADC, converts that analog voltage to a binary number that can be represented as a bus in a digital circuit. An ADC functions by taking samples of the input analog signal, measuring the magnitude of the input voltage signal (usually with reference to GND), and assigning a binary number to the measured magnitude. Once an analog signal has been converted to a binary number, a bus can carry that digital information around a circuit. In a similar manner, digital signals can be reconstituted into analog signals using a digital-to-analog converter. Thus, a binary number that represents a sample of an audio waveform can be converted to an analog signal that can, for example, drive a speaker.
By Bertille Solange. Diagram. Published at Saturday, December 30th 2017, 17:52:52 PM. Wiring diagrams use standard symbols for wiring devices, usually different from those used on schematic diagrams. The electrical symbols not only show where something is to be installed, but also what type of device is being installed. For example, a surface ceiling light is shown by one symbol, a recessed ceiling light has a different symbol, and a surface fluorescent light has another symbol. Each type of switch has a different symbol and so do the various outlets. There are symbols that show the location of smoke detectors, the doorbell chime, and thermostat. On large projects symbols may be numbered to show, for example, the panel board and circuit to which the device connects, and also to identify which of several types of fixture are to be installed at that location.
By Cyrielle Marjolaine. Circuit. Published at Saturday, December 30th 2017, 17:29:18 PM. Ohm’s law states that the current through a conductor between two points is directly proportional to the potential difference across those two points. It means that more the resistance lesser current would flow. I=V/R This would apply to any component of a circuit. For example conductors would increase the current flow and the inductors would decrease it.
By Valentine Sybille. Car Wiring. Published at Saturday, December 30th 2017, 13:36:45 PM. You can fold the bare wire end double to fill the terminal hole. Then solder the terminal and wire. Use shrink wrap to encase the connections. This serves two purposes, one to insulate the terminal and the other is to add support to the end of the wire so that it will be less likely to bend and break.
By Valentine Sybille. Car Wiring. Published at Saturday, December 30th 2017, 12:56:44 PM. If you have removed the body in preparation for installing a new one, you will now have easy access to all of the attachment points as well as the gauge panel and switches. At this point, you have a blank sheet of paper and can do anything that works best.
By Cyrielle Marjolaine. Car Wiring. Published at Saturday, December 30th 2017, 12:48:04 PM. The most common type of fuse is a short length of thin wire enclosed in a heatproof casing often glass. The size of the fuse wire is the thinnest that can carry the normal current of the circuit without overheating, and it is rated in amps.
By Charlotte Myriam. Car Wiring. Published at Saturday, December 30th 2017, 08:57:08 AM. Modern cars often need room for many wires in confined spaces. Some manufacturers now use printed circuits instead of bundles of wires, particularly at the rear of the instrument panel. Printed circuits are plastic sheets on which copper tracks have been "printed". Components are plugged directly into the tracks. A few modern cars have flexible printed circuits. The copper tracks are printed in ribbons of flexible plastic, which replace the whole wiring system.
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