By Sasha Sara. Diagram. Publised at Saturday, January 06th 2018, 22:23:44 PM. In a digital circuit, power supply voltage levels are constrained to two distinct values – “logic high voltage” (called LHV or Vdd) and “logic low voltage” (called LLV or GND). The GND node in any circuit is the universal reference voltage against which all other voltages are measured (in modern digital circuits, GND is typically the lowest voltage in the circuit). In a schematic, it is often difficult to show lines connecting all GND nodes; rather, any nodes labeled GND are assumed to be connected into the same node. Often, a downward pointing triangle symbol, is attached to a GND node in addition to (or instead of) the GND label. The Vdd node in a digital circuit is typically the highest voltage, and all nodes labeled Vdd are tied together into the same node. Vdd may be thought of as the “source” of positive charges in a circuit, and GND may be thought of as the “source” of negative charges in a circuit. In modern digital systems, Vdd and GND are separated by anywhere from 1 to 5 volts. Older or inexpensive circuits typically use 5 volts, while newer circuits use 1-3 volts.
By Lydie Honorine. Diagram. Publised at Monday, January 22nd 2018, 05:46:41 AM. Circuit components are manufactured with exposed metal pins (or leads) that are used to fasten them to the PCB both mechanically (so they will not fall off) and electrically (so current can pass between them). The soldering process, which provides a strong mechanical bond and a very good electrical connection, is used to fasten components to the PCB. During soldering, component leads are inserted through the holes in the PCB, and then the component leads and the through-hole plating metal are heated to above the melting point of the solder (about 500 to 700 degrees F). Solder (a metallic compound) is then melted and allowed to flow in and around the component lead and pad. The solder quickly cools to form a strong bond between the component and the PCB. The process of associating components with reference designators, loading them into their respective holes, and then soldering them in place comprises the PCB assembly process.
By Jessica Mireille. Car Wiring. Published at Sunday, December 31st 2017, 12:05:54 PM. Plan out your wiring. Choose the path the wires will follow. Choose the locations of all of your switches, gauges, ignition box, battery, and charging posts. If your past layout was deficient, now is the time to rethink the entire plan.
By Madeleine Catherine. Motor. Published at Sunday, December 31st 2017, 11:43:49 AM. The drive is a current source in the constant torque region and adds no additional phase lag. In the constant power region however, the drive is a voltage source so it introduces an additional 90 degree phase lag. The total phase lag now is 180 degrees, which is a setup for a sustained and building motor oscillation. This oscillation is commonly called mid-band instability or mid-band resonance.
By Cyrielle Marjolaine. Diagram. Published at Sunday, December 31st 2017, 06:27:36 AM. Starting to make sense? These are the basics and may even seem obvious or intuitive to you, such as the wires and if they are connected. Whenever you determine your specific field of electrical engineering, you may see more complex diagrams and symbols. You’ll learn also that different countries use different symbols. For example, of the two symbols for resistors above, the first one is used in the U.S., while the second is used in Europe. You will also learn about the various symbols used for switches, other power supplies, inductors, meters, lamps, LEDs, transistors, antennas, and much more.
By Bertille Solange. Diagram. Published at Saturday, December 30th 2017, 23:20:44 PM. A digital circuit is constructed of a power supply, devices, and conduction nets. Some nets provide circuit inputs from the “outside world”; in a schematic, these input nets are generally shown entering the left side of component and/or the overall circuit. Other nets present circuit outputs to the outside world; these nets are generally shown exiting the schematic on the right. In the sample schematic below, circuit components are shown as arbitrary shapes, nets are shown as lines, and inputs and outputs are denoted by connector symbols.
By Sasha Sara. Car Wiring. Published at Saturday, December 30th 2017, 22:08:32 PM. The best wiring plan is the one that makes access to the connections the easiest and following the wires from end to end possible. When an electrical problem arises at the races, there is little time to find the problem and fix it. Having easy access shortens the process.
By Alix Loane. Diagram. Published at Saturday, December 30th 2017, 20:00:37 PM. Truly expansive schematics should be split into functional blocks. There might be a section for power input and voltage regulation, or a microcontroller section, or a section devoted to connectors. Try recognizing which sections are which, and following the flow of circuit from input to output. Really good schematic designers might even lay the circuit out like a book, inputs on the left side, outputs on the right.
By Bertille Solange. Diagram. Published at Saturday, December 30th 2017, 17:52:52 PM. Production circuit boards typically start out as thin sheets of fiberglass (about 1mm thick) that are completely covered on both sides with very thin sheets of metal (typically copper). A "standard" circuit board might use a 1 ounce copper process, which means that one ounce of copper is evenly spread across 1 square foot of circuit board. During the manufacturing process, wire patterns are "printed" onto the copper surfaces using a compound that resists etching (hence the name Printed Circuit Board or PCB). The boards are subjected to a chemical etching process that removes all exposed copper. The remaining, un-etched copperforms wires that will interconnect the circuit board components, and small pads that define the regions where component leads will be attached.
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