By Bertille Solange. Circuit. Publised at Friday, June 30th 2017, 01:44:35 AM. A single-layer or single-sided PCB is one that is made out of a single layer of base material or substrate. One side of the base material is coated with a thin layer of metal. Copper is the most common coating due to how well it functions as an electrical conductor. Once the copper base plating is applied, a protective solder mask is usually applied, followed by the last silk-screen to mark out all of the elements on the board.
By Alix Loane. Circuit. Published at Wednesday, December 27th 2017, 08:20:06 AM. An often used and sometimes confusing term in electronic circuits is the word ground. The ground is a circuit node to which all voltages in a circuit are referenced. In a constant voltage supply circuit, one terminal from each voltage supply is typically connected to ground, or is grounded. For example, the negative terminal of a positive power supply is usually connected to ground so that any current drawn out of the positive terminal can be put back into the negative terminal via ground.
By Sasha Sara. Circuit. Published at Wednesday, December 27th 2017, 06:37:54 AM. In some circuits, there are virtual grounds, which are nodes at the same voltage as ground, but are not connected to a power supply. When current flows into the virtual ground, the voltage at the virtual ground may change relative to the real ground, and the consequences of this situation must be analyzed carefully.
By Sasha Sara. Diagram. Published at Wednesday, December 27th 2017, 05:29:58 AM. In a PCB that uses through-hole technology, holes are drilled through the pads so that component leads can be inserted and then fastened (soldered) in place. In a PCB that uses surface-mount technology, component leads are soldered directly to the pads on the surface. Each set of pads (or holes) in the PCB is intended to receive a particular component. To identify which component must be loaded where, reference designators are printed on the circuit board immediately adjacent to the pads using a silk-screen process. A parts list links a designated set of pads to a physical component by describing the component and assigning it a particular reference designator. The reference designators guide assemblers and testers when they are working with the PCB. Many components must be placed into the PCB in a particular orientation. By convention, components that require a particular orientation have one lead designated as pin 1. On the PCB, a square pad or silkscreen indicator typically denotes pin 1.
By Madeleine Catherine. Circuit. Published at Wednesday, December 27th 2017, 05:09:44 AM. If the components are connected in a parallel format they would be termed to be a parallel series. In this sort of a connection all the components would receive the same voltage, while the current would be divided amongst the components.
By Cyrielle Marjolaine. Amplifier. Published at Wednesday, December 27th 2017, 04:53:46 AM. Unfortunately we are not quite done yet. I mentioned the concept of a ground loop earlier. This is a particularly insidious problem that can easily ruin a good project. In very general terms it is formed whenever there are multiple signal ground paths to the same termination. I can be internal or external to the piece of equipment. The most frequent result is a hum that either will not go away or happens only when something is connected to the piece of equipment. I need now to provide a few brief words about hum. If the hum is at the same frequency as the AC mains (either 50 or 60 Hz typically) then it is likely from interconnections external to the equipment or poor shielding internal to the equipment. If the hum is at twice the mains frequency then it nearly always because of inadequate power supply filtering. Ground loops are usually at the mains frequency. So if you encounter one, then you must search for the alternate ground paths that relate to the signal chain. If it external (occurs only when the equipment is attached to an external item), then check for things like phonograph grounding at the phonograph end. As an example I have seen is when one terminal of a cartridge connected to the ground in the tone arm (OK and fairly common) and a separate ground from the same tone arm (not OK) is provided for connection to the amplifier chassis ground (this is not to be confused to the situation when there is a separate ground wire from the phonograph chassis that has no connection to the ground in the cartridge). Since both the signal ground and tone arm ground are connected at the phonograph they will form a ground loop (between the shields and ground wire) when connected to the amplifier. The solution in such cases is to separate the grounds at the phonograph. An internal example was mentioned earlier when both ends of internal shielded cables are joined in two different places (at the input jacks and volume control). The irony of the situation and part of the insidious nature of ground loops is that they can on occasion be benign and not cause hum. They can later show up when a new piece of equipment is attached to the system. In all cases however, they have the same fundamental cause, alternate paths for the signal return.
By Charlotte Myriam. Diode. Published at Wednesday, December 27th 2017, 04:31:39 AM. The above general rule notwithstanding, if the cathode voltage is positive relative to the anode voltage by a great enough amount, the diode will conduct current. The voltage required to produce this phenomenon, known as the avalanche voltage, varies greatly depending on the nature of the semiconductor material from which the device is fabricated. The avalanche voltage can range from a few volts up to several hundred volts.
By Madeleine Catherine. Circuit. Published at Wednesday, December 27th 2017, 03:48:10 AM.
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