By Bertille Solange. Circuit. Publised at Friday, June 30th 2017, 01:44:35 AM. The circuits and components of a double-layer PCB board are usually connected in one of two ways: either utilizing a through-hole or with the use of a surface-mount. A through-hole connection means that small wires, known as leads, are fed through the holes, with each end of the leads then soldered to the right component.
By Valentine Sybille. Circuit. Published at Wednesday, December 20th 2017, 10:57:46 AM. When a voltage is applied across a conductor, a current will begin to flow. The ratio between voltage and current is known as resistance. For most metallic conductors, the relationship between voltage and current is linear.
By Valentine Sybille. Amplifier. Published at Wednesday, December 20th 2017, 10:51:48 AM. Class A Amplifier operation is where the entire input signal waveform is faithfully reproduced at the amplifiers output as the transistor is perfectly biased within its active region, thereby never reaching either of its Cut-off or Saturation regions. This then results in the AC input signal being perfectly “centred” between the amplifiers upper and lower signal limits as shown below.
By Jessica Mireille. Diagram. Published at Wednesday, December 20th 2017, 09:45:52 AM. A digital circuit is constructed of a power supply, devices, and conduction nets. Some nets provide circuit inputs from the “outside world”; in a schematic, these input nets are generally shown entering the left side of component and/or the overall circuit. Other nets present circuit outputs to the outside world; these nets are generally shown exiting the schematic on the right. In the sample schematic below, circuit components are shown as arbitrary shapes, nets are shown as lines, and inputs and outputs are denoted by connector symbols.
By Charlotte Myriam. Circuit. Published at Wednesday, December 20th 2017, 08:35:08 AM. Voltage is measured in units of Joules per Coulomb, known as a Volt (V). It is important to remember that voltage is not an absolute quantity, rather, it is always considered as a relative value between two points. In an electronic circuit, the electromagnetic problem of voltages at arbitrary points in space is typically simplified to voltages between nodes of circuit components such as resistors, capacitors, and transistors
By Sasha Sara. Diagram. Published at Wednesday, December 20th 2017, 08:25:48 AM. In a digital circuit, power supply voltage levels are constrained to two distinct values – “logic high voltage” (called LHV or Vdd) and “logic low voltage” (called LLV or GND). The GND node in any circuit is the universal reference voltage against which all other voltages are measured (in modern digital circuits, GND is typically the lowest voltage in the circuit). In a schematic, it is often difficult to show lines connecting all GND nodes; rather, any nodes labeled GND are assumed to be connected into the same node. Often, a downward pointing triangle symbol, is attached to a GND node in addition to (or instead of) the GND label. The Vdd node in a digital circuit is typically the highest voltage, and all nodes labeled Vdd are tied together into the same node. Vdd may be thought of as the “source” of positive charges in a circuit, and GND may be thought of as the “source” of negative charges in a circuit. In modern digital systems, Vdd and GND are separated by anywhere from 1 to 5 volts. Older or inexpensive circuits typically use 5 volts, while newer circuits use 1-3 volts.
By Bertille Solange. Circuit. Published at Wednesday, December 20th 2017, 07:45:00 AM. There are two kinds of energy sources in electronic circuits: voltage sources and current sources. When connected to an electronic circuit, an ideal voltage source maintains a given voltage between its two terminals by providing any amount of current necessary to do so. Similarly, an ideal current source maintains a given current to a circuit by providing any amount of voltage across its terminals necessary to do so.
By Valentine Sybille. Circuit. Published at Wednesday, December 20th 2017, 07:20:05 AM. The concept of complex impedance introduces a unified representation for resistors, capacitors, and inductors, whereby a circuit’s frequency response from input to output can be determined using KVL and KCL, where each element is assigned the appropriate impedance. The key assumption to this point is that the input to the circuit must consist solely of DC and/or sinusoidal signals. Now, this analysis is be extended to include arbitrary input signals by using the mathematical techniques of Laplace transforms.
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