By Valentine Sybille. Diagram. Publised at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 07:35:16 AM. Circuits often require output devices to communicate their state to an user. Examples of electronic output devices include computer monitors, LCD alphanumeric panels (as on a calculator), small lamps or light-emitting diodes (LED), etc. Digilent boards include different output devices, but all of them include some number of individual LED, and seven-segment LED displays that can display the digits 0-9 in each digit position (each segment in the seven-segment display contains a single LED). LED are two-terminal semiconductor devices that conduct current in only one direction (from the anode to the cathode). The small LED chips are secured inside a plastic housing, and they emit light at a givenfrequency (RED, YELLOW, etc.) when a small electric current (typically 10mA to 25mA) flows through them.
By Valentine Sybille. Circuit. Publised at Monday, December 25th 2017, 22:52:15 PM. The real part and imaginary part of impedance are interpreted as a resistive part that dissipates energy and a reactive part that stores energy. Resistors can only dissipate energy and therefore their impedances have only a real part. Capacitors and inductors can only store energy and therefore their impedances have only an imaginary part. When resistors, capacitors, and inductors are combined, the overall impedance may have both real and imaginary parts. It is important to note that the definition of impedance preserves the definition of resistance.
By Madeleine Catherine. Motor. Published at Saturday, December 23rd 2017, 15:37:58 PM. In the previous section it was shown that motor torque varies inversely with speed. This then is the motor’s natural speed-torque curve. Below a certain speed, called the corner speed, current would rise above the motor’s rated current, ultimately to destructive levels as the motor’s speed is reduced further.
By Jessica Mireille. Diagram. Published at Saturday, December 23rd 2017, 14:53:38 PM. The slide switches are also known as “single throw-double pole” (STDP) switches, because only one switch (or throw) exists, but two positions (or poles) are available (a pole is an electrical contact to which the switch can make contact). These switches can be set to output either Vdd (when the actuator is closest to the board’s edge) or GND. The push button switches are also known as “momentary” contact buttons, because they only make contact while they are actively being pressed – they output a GND at rest, and a Vdd only when they are being pressed. The figure below shows typically pushbutton and slide switch circuits used on Digilent boards.
By Charlotte Myriam. Diagram. Published at Saturday, December 23rd 2017, 11:00:21 AM. A digital circuit requires a power supply to provide a constant and stable source of electric power to all devices. As discussed above, electric power is derived from the basic electrical forces that charged particles (e.g., protons and electrons) exert on one another – namely, electrons are repelled by other electrons, and attracted to more electrically positive areas where there are relatively fewer electrons. The vast majority of charged particles are found in ordinary matter bound in electrically neutral atomic structures (that is, most particles are found in structures that have an equal number of positive and negative particles). Some electrically neutral conducting materials (like metals) contain electrons that are not so tightly bound to their host atoms. If a voltage source is applied to these materials, the lightly bound electrons will move away from the concentrated source of electrons on the negative side of the supply towards the electrically positive side of the supply. A “power supply” in a digital circuit provides a local, contained imbalance of electrons that provides a voltage source that can do useful work, such as transmitting information through a conductor from one device to another. A digital circuit allows a controlled flow of electrons from of the negative to positive side of the power supply, but only via the paths designed into the circuit. As electrons flow to and from the devices in a given circuit, they can change device properties in useful ways.
By Sasha Sara. Diode. Published at Saturday, December 23rd 2017, 10:43:50 AM. A reliable way to verify the identity of the terminals is using a multimeter to figure out the forward current direction. On the resistance setting, Ω\OmegaΩ, the meter puts a small voltage on its test leads (this is why an ohm meter needs a battery). You use that small voltage to see which way current flows.
By Sasha Sara. Diagram. Published at Saturday, December 23rd 2017, 10:37:29 AM. There are two commonly used capacitor symbols. One symbol represents a polarized (usually electrolytic or tantalum) capacitor, and the other is for non-polarized caps. In each case there are two terminals, running perpendicularly into plates. The symbol with one curved plate indicates that the capacitor is polarized. The curved plate represents the cathode of the capacitor, which should be at a lower voltage than the positive, anode pin. A plus sign might also be added to the positive pin of the polarized capacitor symbol.
By Bertille Solange. Circuit. Published at Saturday, December 23rd 2017, 09:32:45 AM. A single-layer or single-sided PCB is one that is made out of a single layer of base material or substrate. One side of the base material is coated with a thin layer of metal. Copper is the most common coating due to how well it functions as an electrical conductor. Once the copper base plating is applied, a protective solder mask is usually applied, followed by the last silk-screen to mark out all of the elements on the board.
By Cyrielle Marjolaine. Circuit. Published at Saturday, December 23rd 2017, 07:55:27 AM. A simple low-pass filter circuit, which allows low frequency signals to pass through the circuit while attenuating high-frequency signals, can be made using a resistor and capacitor in series.The transfer function of this filter can be determined by analyzing the circuit as a voltage divider,
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