By Valentine Sybille. Diagram. Publised at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 07:35:16 AM. In contrast to digital circuits, analog circuits use signals whose voltage levels are not constrained to two distinct levels, but instead can assume any value between Vdd and GND. Many input devices, particularly those using electronic sensors (e.g., microphones, cameras, thermometers, pressure sensors, motion and proximity detectors, etc.) produce analog voltages at their outputs. In modern electronic devices, it is likely that such signals will be converted to digital signals before they are used within the device. For example, a digital voice-memo recording device uses an analog microphone circuit to convert sound pressure waves into voltage waves on an internal circuit node. A special circuit called an analog-to-digital converter, or ADC, converts that analog voltage to a binary number that can be represented as a bus in a digital circuit. An ADC functions by taking samples of the input analog signal, measuring the magnitude of the input voltage signal (usually with reference to GND), and assigning a binary number to the measured magnitude. Once an analog signal has been converted to a binary number, a bus can carry that digital information around a circuit. In a similar manner, digital signals can be reconstituted into analog signals using a digital-to-analog converter. Thus, a binary number that represents a sample of an audio waveform can be converted to an analog signal that can, for example, drive a speaker.
By Valentine Sybille. Circuit. Publised at Monday, December 25th 2017, 22:52:15 PM. There are two kinds of energy sources in electronic circuits: voltage sources and current sources. When connected to an electronic circuit, an ideal voltage source maintains a given voltage between its two terminals by providing any amount of current necessary to do so. Similarly, an ideal current source maintains a given current to a circuit by providing any amount of voltage across its terminals necessary to do so.
By Jessica Mireille. Motor. Published at Tuesday, December 19th 2017, 00:50:09 AM. Eddy current and hysteresis heating are collectively called iron losses. The former induces currents in the iron of the motor while the latter is caused by the re-alignment of the magnetic domains in the iron. You can think of this as “friction heating” as the magnetic dipoles in the iron switch back and forth. Either way, both cause the bulk heating of the motor. Iron losses are a function of AC current and therefore the power supply voltage.
By Jessica Mireille. Diagram. Published at Tuesday, December 19th 2017, 00:43:41 AM. Circuits often require output devices to communicate their state to an user. Examples of electronic output devices include computer monitors, LCD alphanumeric panels (as on a calculator), small lamps or light-emitting diodes (LED), etc. Digilent boards include different output devices, but all of them include some number of individual LED, and seven-segment LED displays that can display the digits 0-9 in each digit position (each segment in the seven-segment display contains a single LED). LED are two-terminal semiconductor devices that conduct current in only one direction (from the anode to the cathode). The small LED chips are secured inside a plastic housing, and they emit light at a givenfrequency (RED, YELLOW, etc.) when a small electric current (typically 10mA to 25mA) flows through them.
By Jessica Mireille. Diagram. Published at Tuesday, December 19th 2017, 00:40:08 AM. There are drawing programs, and there are schematic capture programs. All schematic capture programs will produce output for inclusion in publications. However, these programs have different goals, and it shows. Rarely is the output of a schematic capture program really suitable for publication; often it is not even readable, or cannot be scaled. Engineers who really want to have a useful schematic drawing of a circuit usually redraw the circuit in a general drawing program, which can be both tedious and prone to introducing new errors.
By Cyrielle Marjolaine. Circuit. Published at Tuesday, December 19th 2017, 00:33:07 AM. Electric current is the rate at which electric charge flows through a given area. Current is measured in the unit of Coulombs per second, which is known as an ampere (A). In an electronic circuit, the electromagnetic problem of currents is typically simplified as a current flowing through particular circuit components.
By Cyrielle Marjolaine. Diagram. Published at Tuesday, December 19th 2017, 00:21:22 AM. Wiring diagrams use standard symbols for wiring devices, usually different from those used on schematic diagrams. The electrical symbols not only show where something is to be installed, but also what type of device is being installed. For example, a surface ceiling light is shown by one symbol, a recessed ceiling light has a different symbol, and a surface fluorescent light has another symbol. Each type of switch has a different symbol and so do the various outlets. There are symbols that show the location of smoke detectors, the doorbell chime, and thermostat. On large projects symbols may be numbered to show, for example, the panel board and circuit to which the device connects, and also to identify which of several types of fixture are to be installed at that location.
By Bertille Solange. Diagram. Published at Monday, December 18th 2017, 23:06:24 PM. The slide switches are also known as “single throw-double pole” (STDP) switches, because only one switch (or throw) exists, but two positions (or poles) are available (a pole is an electrical contact to which the switch can make contact). These switches can be set to output either Vdd (when the actuator is closest to the board’s edge) or GND. The push button switches are also known as “momentary” contact buttons, because they only make contact while they are actively being pressed – they output a GND at rest, and a Vdd only when they are being pressed. The figure below shows typically pushbutton and slide switch circuits used on Digilent boards.
By Lydie Honorine. Diagram. Published at Monday, December 18th 2017, 22:41:39 PM. Voltage nodes are single-terminal schematic components, which we can connect component terminals to in order to assign them to a specific voltage level. These are a special application of net names, meaning all terminals connected to a like-named voltage node are connected together.
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