By Cyrielle Marjolaine. Motor. Publised at Thursday, June 08th 2017, 14:32:37 PM. The result now is a two-part speed-torque curve which features constant torque from zero speed until it intersects the motor’s natural load line, called the corner speed, beyond which the motor is in the constant power region.
By Charlotte Myriam. Diode. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 14:27:42 PM. The above general rule notwithstanding, if the cathode voltage is positive relative to the anode voltage by a great enough amount, the diode will conduct current. The voltage required to produce this phenomenon, known as the avalanche voltage, varies greatly depending on the nature of the semiconductor material from which the device is fabricated. The avalanche voltage can range from a few volts up to several hundred volts.
By Jessica Mireille. Diagram. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 14:23:35 PM. Most of the electrical symbols can be changed in their appearance, styles and colors according to users requirements. Electrical symbols are used to represent various electrical and electronic devices in a schematic diagram of an electrical or electronic circuit.
By Alix Loane. Diagram. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 13:58:36 PM. In a digital circuit, power supply voltage levels are constrained to two distinct values – “logic high voltage” (called LHV or Vdd) and “logic low voltage” (called LLV or GND). The GND node in any circuit is the universal reference voltage against which all other voltages are measured (in modern digital circuits, GND is typically the lowest voltage in the circuit). In a schematic, it is often difficult to show lines connecting all GND nodes; rather, any nodes labeled GND are assumed to be connected into the same node. Often, a downward pointing triangle symbol, is attached to a GND node in addition to (or instead of) the GND label. The Vdd node in a digital circuit is typically the highest voltage, and all nodes labeled Vdd are tied together into the same node. Vdd may be thought of as the “source” of positive charges in a circuit, and GND may be thought of as the “source” of negative charges in a circuit. In modern digital systems, Vdd and GND are separated by anywhere from 1 to 5 volts. Older or inexpensive circuits typically use 5 volts, while newer circuits use 1-3 volts.
By Alix Loane. Circuit. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 13:48:36 PM. A single-layer or single-sided PCB is one that is made out of a single layer of base material or substrate. One side of the base material is coated with a thin layer of metal. Copper is the most common coating due to how well it functions as an electrical conductor. Once the copper base plating is applied, a protective solder mask is usually applied, followed by the last silk-screen to mark out all of the elements on the board.
By Jessica Mireille. Diode. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 13:27:35 PM. For silicon diodes, the typical forward voltage is 0.7 volts, nominal. For germanium diodes, the forward voltage is only 0.3 volts. The chemical constituency of the P-N junction comprising the diode accounts for its nominal forward voltage figure, which is why silicon and germanium diodes have such different forward voltages. Forward voltage drop remains approximately constant for a wide range of diode currents, meaning that diode voltage drop is not like that of a resistor or even a normal (closed) switch. For most simplified circuit analysis, the voltage drop across a conducting diode may be considered constant at the nominal figure and not related to the amount of current.
By Lydie Honorine. Power. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 13:24:59 PM. The ground pin current in an LDO regulator is approximately equal to the load current divided by the gain of the single PNP transistor. Consequently, the ground pin current of an LDO is the highest of the three types.
By Madeleine Catherine. Amplifier. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 13:03:24 PM. First and probably the most important thing I learned is all grounds should not go directly to the chassis. This seems contrary to logic. A little side trip into electricity and conductors is appropriate now. Any conductor has some finite resistance and anytime some current is passed through it a voltage will be correspondingly created. Actually the voltage is first, but in this case we want to concentrate on the current. In a typical piece of audio equipment (most everything else as well) there are usually three distinct ground circuits. The first is obvious, the signal ground, the second is the power supply ground and third and often ignored is the case or chassis ground. Each has a particular function and all interact. The signal ground usual and primary function is to provide a return path for the audio. Likewise the power supply ground is the return path for the power used by the circuitry. The case ground I will cover a bit later. Remembering that anytime current flows through a conductor it will cause a voltage, let us see what happens if you mix the signal and power grounds. Each will generate a proportional corresponding voltage. So for an example: the conductor is a piece of wire that has a 1 ohm resistance, the signal voltage (and thus its return) has one millivolt (mV)of amplitude and the power supply is causing a flow of 100 milliamperes (mA) through the wire. The contribution to the voltages on the conductor is then, 1 mV for the signal and 0.1 Ampere times 1 ohm equals 100 mV for the power - see Ohm Law for equations. Since it is really unlikely that the power is perfectly clean DC it will contaminate the signal with hum and noise. Even a 1% noise level in the DC will result in a noise voltage equal to the signal voltage. I grant that this is a gross simplification, but it does illustrate the situation. So my rule number one is to absolutely avoid having any ground conductor handling both signal and power. So how do you do this? I find that a sort of modular arrangement is best. This does not mean that the physical components ca not be on the same board though. What it does mean is that the power supply is wired independently from the active signal portion. Eventually these grounds need to connect, but I will get to that later.
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