By Lydie Honorine. Circuit. Publised at Friday, December 22nd 2017, 23:34:06 PM. For DC signals, the linearity of the system implies that H is independent of Vin. For dynamic signals, the transfer function cannot in general be described simply. However, if the input is a sinusoidal signal then the output must also be a sinusoidal signal with the same frequency but possibly a different amplitude and phase. In other words, a linear system can only modify the amplitude and phase of a sinusoidal input.
By Madeleine Catherine. Diagram. Publised at Wednesday, July 05th 2017, 04:09:04 AM. Electronic components are often assembled and interconnected on a flat surface known as a circuit board. The several types of existing circuit boards may be divided into two broad categories: those intended for prototype or experimental circuits; and those intended for production and/or commercial sale. Circuit boards used for experimental work are often referred to as breadboards or protoboards. Breadboards allow engineers to construct circuits quickly, so that they can be studied and modified until an optimal design is discovered. In a typical breadboard use, components and wires are added to a circuit in an ad hoc manner as the design proceeds, with new data and new understanding dictating the course of the design. Since breadboard circuits exist only in the laboratory, no special consideration need be given to creating reliable or simple-to-manufacture circuits – the designer can focus exclusively on the circuits behavior. In contrast, circuit boards intended for production or commercial sale must have highly reliable wires and interconnects, permanent bonds to all components, and topographies amenable to mass production and thorough testing. And further, they must be made of a material that is reliable, low-cost, and easy to manufacture. A fiberglass substratewith copper wires (etched from laminated copper sheets) has been the PCB material of choice for the past several decades. The Digilent board is a simple example of such a board. Note that most often, production circuit board designs are finalized only after extensive breadboard phases. Components are permanently affixed to production boards using the soldering process.
By Sasha Sara. Diagram. Published at Wednesday, December 20th 2017, 08:25:48 AM. An electronic circuit is a circular path of conductors by which electric current can flow. A closed circuit is like a circle because it starts and ends at the same point forming a complete loop. Furthermore, a closed circuit allows electricity to flow from the (+) power to the (-) ground uninterrupted.
By Bertille Solange. Circuit. Published at Wednesday, December 20th 2017, 07:45:00 AM. If the components of the circuit are connected in one single path is it termed as series. The same current would flow through all the components while the voltage would differ from one component to another. For example you have lit three lamps in series to the same power source, the first one would receive more voltage than the last.
By Valentine Sybille. Circuit. Published at Wednesday, December 20th 2017, 07:20:05 AM. In some circuits, there are virtual grounds, which are nodes at the same voltage as ground, but are not connected to a power supply. When current flows into the virtual ground, the voltage at the virtual ground may change relative to the real ground, and the consequences of this situation must be analyzed carefully.
By Sasha Sara. Diagram. Published at Wednesday, December 20th 2017, 07:05:57 AM. The voltage source, such as a battery, is needed in order to cause the current to flow through the circuit. In addition, there needs to be a conductive path that provides a route for the electricity to flow. Finally, a proper circuit needs a load that consumes the power.
By Charlotte Myriam. Power. Published at Wednesday, December 20th 2017, 06:58:13 AM. In shunt regulation a resistor is typically placed in series with the load and the unregulated voltage. The resistor is small enough so that the load could always receive somewhat more than the maximum current it would ever need. The shunt regulator is placed across the load and conducts excess current around the load such that the voltage across the load remains a constant as the load draws the actual current at any given time. A common shunt regulator is a Zener diode which is an example of an open loop system. Feedback control can also be used to drive the current through the control element (a transistor) across the load. Shunt regulators are generally only used for low power applications because they can be very inefficient. However, shunt regulators have an inherent fault current limiting feature and also can regulate even if the load is forcing current into the regulator rather than drawing current from it. Shunt regulators also have an interesting feature that the input current is constant – independent of load current (except if a load fault occurs – but that is a special case not in normal operation). Thus shunt regulators are very good at isolating a load with rapid and large current fluctuations.
By Sasha Sara. Circuit. Published at Wednesday, December 20th 2017, 05:50:15 AM. An electric current is defined as free flow of electrons and the motivating force behind that free flow of electrons is called Voltage. Voltage is the measurement of potential energy that would move the electrons between two points. Voltage is the push that the electrons require to move within a circuit. Voltage is measured by Volt and Current is measured by Ampere.
By Charlotte Myriam. Diagram. Published at Wednesday, December 20th 2017, 03:09:51 AM. Be sure to use this to produce a schematic if you need to ask questions about your circuit. It will help others to quickly understand the circuit diagrams are pictures with symbols that have differed from country to country and have changed over time, but are now to a large extent internationally standardized. Simple components often had symbols intended to represent some feature of the physical construction of the device. For example, the symbol for a resistor shown here dates back to the days when that component was made from a long piece of wire wrapped in such a manner as to not produce inductance, which would have made it a coil. These wirewound resistors are now used only in high-power applications, smaller resistors being cast from carbon composition (a mixture of carbon and filler) or fabricated as an insulating tube or chip coated with a metal film. The internationally standardized symbol for a resistor is therefore now simplified to an oblong, sometimes with the value in ohms written inside, instead of the zig-zag symbol. A less common symbol is simply a series of peaks on one side of the line representing the conductor, rather than back-and-forth as shown here. Components and connections involved in your design.
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