By Madeleine Catherine. Diagram. Publised at Wednesday, July 05th 2017, 04:09:04 AM. Voltage nodes are single-terminal schematic components, which we can connect component terminals to in order to assign them to a specific voltage level. These are a special application of net names, meaning all terminals connected to a like-named voltage node are connected together.
By Bertille Solange. Diagram. Published at Saturday, December 23rd 2017, 03:33:27 AM. A schematic shows connections in a circuit in a way that is clear and standardized. It is a way of communicating to other engineers exactly what components are involved in a circuit as well as how they are connected. A good schematic will show component names and values, and provide labels for sections or components to help communicate the intended purpose. Note how connections on wires (or "nets") are shown using dots and non-connections are shown without a dot.
By Bertille Solange. Diagram. Published at Saturday, December 23rd 2017, 03:21:07 AM. Circuit components are manufactured with exposed metal pins (or leads) that are used to fasten them to the PCB both mechanically (so they will not fall off) and electrically (so current can pass between them). The soldering process, which provides a strong mechanical bond and a very good electrical connection, is used to fasten components to the PCB. During soldering, component leads are inserted through the holes in the PCB, and then the component leads and the through-hole plating metal are heated to above the melting point of the solder (about 500 to 700 degrees F). Solder (a metallic compound) is then melted and allowed to flow in and around the component lead and pad. The solder quickly cools to form a strong bond between the component and the PCB. The process of associating components with reference designators, loading them into their respective holes, and then soldering them in place comprises the PCB assembly process.
By Sasha Sara. Diagram. Published at Saturday, December 23rd 2017, 02:47:52 AM. Learning about basic electronics and creating your own projects is a lot easier than you may think. In this tutorial, we’re going to give you a brief overview of common electronic components and explain what their functions are. You will then learn about schematic diagrams and how they are used to design and build circuits. And finally, you will put this information to use by creating your first basic circuit.
By Cyrielle Marjolaine. Diagram. Published at Saturday, December 23rd 2017, 02:43:16 AM. The unloaded PCB appears green because thin sheets of green plastic have been applied to both sides (otherwise the PCB would appear pale yellow). Called solder masks, these sheets cover all exposed metal other than the component pads and holes so that errant solder can not inadvertently short (or electrically connect) the printed wires. All metal surfaces other than the exposed pads and holes (i.e., the wires) are underneath the solder mask. Not infrequently, blue or even red solder masks are used.
By Madeleine Catherine. Circuit. Published at Saturday, December 23rd 2017, 02:15:49 AM. The concept of complex impedance introduces a unified representation for resistors, capacitors, and inductors, whereby a circuit’s frequency response from input to output can be determined using KVL and KCL, where each element is assigned the appropriate impedance. The key assumption to this point is that the input to the circuit must consist solely of DC and/or sinusoidal signals. Now, this analysis is be extended to include arbitrary input signals by using the mathematical techniques of Laplace transforms.
By Cyrielle Marjolaine. Circuit. Published at Saturday, December 23rd 2017, 01:06:49 AM. When a voltage is applied across a conductor, a current will begin to flow. The ratio between voltage and current is known as resistance. For most metallic conductors, the relationship between voltage and current is linear.
By Alix Loane. Diagram. Published at Saturday, December 23rd 2017, 00:38:09 AM. In contrast to digital circuits, analog circuits use signals whose voltage levels are not constrained to two distinct levels, but instead can assume any value between Vdd and GND. Many input devices, particularly those using electronic sensors (e.g., microphones, cameras, thermometers, pressure sensors, motion and proximity detectors, etc.) produce analog voltages at their outputs. In modern electronic devices, it is likely that such signals will be converted to digital signals before they are used within the device. For example, a digital voice-memo recording device uses an analog microphone circuit to convert sound pressure waves into voltage waves on an internal circuit node. A special circuit called an analog-to-digital converter, or ADC, converts that analog voltage to a binary number that can be represented as a bus in a digital circuit. An ADC functions by taking samples of the input analog signal, measuring the magnitude of the input voltage signal (usually with reference to GND), and assigning a binary number to the measured magnitude. Once an analog signal has been converted to a binary number, a bus can carry that digital information around a circuit. In a similar manner, digital signals can be reconstituted into analog signals using a digital-to-analog converter. Thus, a binary number that represents a sample of an audio waveform can be converted to an analog signal that can, for example, drive a speaker.
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