By Madeleine Catherine. Diagram. Publised at Wednesday, July 05th 2017, 04:09:04 AM. A PCB Layout is the resulting design from taking a schematic with specific components and determining how they will physically be laid out on a printed circuit board. To produce a PCB Layout, you must know the connections of components, component sizes (footprints), and a myriad of other properties (such as current, frequencies, emissions, reflections, high voltage gaps, safety considerations, manufacturing tolerances, etc.).
By Lydie Honorine. Circuit. Publised at Friday, December 22nd 2017, 23:34:06 PM. We all know about electricity. It is the flow electrons. Hence the word electricity is derived from the word electrons. A battery itself doesn’t work, if you hold it up in air, there would be no passage of electric current. Hence you need a circuit. In Simple terms an electronic circuit is a closed pathway for electrons to flow.
By Alix Loane. Diagram. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 13:58:36 PM. The unloaded PCB appears green because thin sheets of green plastic have been applied to both sides (otherwise the PCB would appear pale yellow). Called solder masks, these sheets cover all exposed metal other than the component pads and holes so that errant solder can not inadvertently short (or electrically connect) the printed wires. All metal surfaces other than the exposed pads and holes (i.e., the wires) are underneath the solder mask. Not infrequently, blue or even red solder masks are used.
By Alix Loane. Circuit. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 13:48:36 PM. The concept of complex impedance introduces a unified representation for resistors, capacitors, and inductors, whereby a circuit’s frequency response from input to output can be determined using KVL and KCL, where each element is assigned the appropriate impedance. The key assumption to this point is that the input to the circuit must consist solely of DC and/or sinusoidal signals. Now, this analysis is be extended to include arbitrary input signals by using the mathematical techniques of Laplace transforms.
By Jessica Mireille. Diode. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 13:27:35 PM. A forward-biased diode conducts current and drops a small voltage across it, leaving most of the battery voltage dropped across the lamp. If the battery’s polarity is reversed, the diode becomes reverse-biased, and drops all of the battery’s voltage leaving none for the lamp. If we consider the diode to be a self-actuating switch (closed in the forward-bias mode and open in the reverse-bias mode), this behavior makes sense. The most substantial difference is that the diode drops a lot more voltage when conducting than the average mechanical switch (0.7 volts versus tens of millivolts).
By Lydie Honorine. Power. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 13:24:59 PM. The control circuitry must monitor (sense) the output voltage, and adjust the current source (as required by the load) to hold the output voltage at the desired value. The design limit of the current source defines the maximum load current the regulator can source and still maintain regulation.
By Madeleine Catherine. Amplifier. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 13:03:24 PM. As I mentioned earlier there is a third "ground" the case or chassis. Here there can be two distinct issues. As part of many electrical codes all exposed metal parts of AC mains electrically powered equipment must be either connected to the "earth" ground or doubly insulated from any electrical connections. This is to protect the user in case there is an internal failure. Any potentially dangerous voltages will be "grounded" to the earth. So I use three wire connections all the time. The "earth" ground from the AC mains is directly connected to the chassis at the entry point. As a note of interest I also use the standard IEC connectors that are found on nearly all personal computers to connect to the AC mains. This makes it easy to move equipment around and you do not have the AC cord permanently affixed to the equipment. In addition to protecting the user from shock hazards, the case now acts as an EMI shield. Any external EMI is diverted to the earth ground via the power cord.
By Jessica Mireille. Power. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 11:44:41 AM. The output voltage is controlled using a feedback loop, which requires some type of compensation to assure loop stability. Most linear regulators have built-in compensation, and are completely stable without external components. Some regulators (like Low-Dropout types), do require some external capacitance connected from the output lead to ground to assure regulator stability.
By Madeleine Catherine. Circuit. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 10:11:25 AM. When a voltage is applied across a conductor, a current will begin to flow. The ratio between voltage and current is known as resistance. For most metallic conductors, the relationship between voltage and current is linear.
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