By Madeleine Catherine. Diagram. Publised at Wednesday, July 05th 2017, 04:09:04 AM. On all but the simplest PCBs, wires must be printed on more than one surface of fiberglass to allow for all the required component interconnections. Each surface containing printed wires is called a layer. In a relatively simple PCB that requires only two layers, only one piece of fiberglass is required since wires can be printed on both sides. In a more complex PCB where several layers are required, individual circuit boards are manufactured separately and then laminated together to form one multi-layer circuit board. To connect wires on two or more layers, small holes called vias are drilled through the wires and fiberglass board at the point where the wires on the different layers cross. The interior surface of these holes is coated with metal so that electric current can flow through the vias. Most Digilent boards are simple four or six layer boards; some more complex computer circuit boards have more than 20 layers.
By Lydie Honorine. Circuit. Publised at Friday, December 22nd 2017, 23:34:06 PM. Electric circuits use electric power to perform some function, like energize a heating or lighting element, turn a motor, or create an electromagnetic filed. Electronic circuits differ from electric circuits in that they use devices that can themselves be controlled by other electric signals. Restated, electronic circuits are built from devices that use electricity to control electricity. Most electronic circuits use signals that are within 5 to 10 volts of ground; most circuits built within the past several years use signals that are within 3 to 5 volts from ground. Some electronic circuits represent information encoded as continuous voltage levels that can wander between the high and low voltage supply rails – these are called analog circuits. As an example, a sound pressure level transducer (i.e. a microphone) might drive a signal between 0V and 3.3V in direct proportion to the detected sound pressure level. In this case, the voltage signal output from the microphone is said to be an analog ifthe sound pressure wave itself. Other circuits use only two distinct voltage levels to represent information. Most often, these two voltage levels use the same voltages supplied by the power rails. In these circuits, called digital circuits, all information must be represented as binary numbers, with a signal at 0V (or ground) representing one kind of information, and a signal at 3.3V (or whatever the upper voltage supply rail provides) representing the other kind of information. In this series of modules, we will confine our discussions to digital circuits.
By Jessica Mireille. Motor. Published at Friday, January 12th 2018, 18:05:28 PM. If more than one drive is being operated from the power supply this is not a problem since the other drive(s) will absorb this current for its needs, unless it is decelerating as well. For this case or for a single drive it may be necessary to place a voltage clamp across the power supply in the form of a Zener diode. The voltage of this diode must be greater than the maximum expected power supply voltage, yet low enough to protect the drive. A good choice would be either 82 volts or 91 volts as standard values.
By Madeleine Catherine. Diagram. Published at Friday, January 12th 2018, 13:55:46 PM. Electronic components are often assembled and interconnected on a flat surface known as a circuit board. The several types of existing circuit boards may be divided into two broad categories: those intended for prototype or experimental circuits; and those intended for production and/or commercial sale. Circuit boards used for experimental work are often referred to as breadboards or protoboards. Breadboards allow engineers to construct circuits quickly, so that they can be studied and modified until an optimal design is discovered. In a typical breadboard use, components and wires are added to a circuit in an ad hoc manner as the design proceeds, with new data and new understanding dictating the course of the design. Since breadboard circuits exist only in the laboratory, no special consideration need be given to creating reliable or simple-to-manufacture circuits – the designer can focus exclusively on the circuits behavior. In contrast, circuit boards intended for production or commercial sale must have highly reliable wires and interconnects, permanent bonds to all components, and topographies amenable to mass production and thorough testing. And further, they must be made of a material that is reliable, low-cost, and easy to manufacture. A fiberglass substratewith copper wires (etched from laminated copper sheets) has been the PCB material of choice for the past several decades. The Digilent board is a simple example of such a board. Note that most often, production circuit board designs are finalized only after extensive breadboard phases. Components are permanently affixed to production boards using the soldering process.
By Lydie Honorine. Diagram. Published at Friday, January 12th 2018, 09:12:04 AM. The unloaded PCB appears green because thin sheets of green plastic have been applied to both sides (otherwise the PCB would appear pale yellow). Called solder masks, these sheets cover all exposed metal other than the component pads and holes so that errant solder can not inadvertently short (or electrically connect) the printed wires. All metal surfaces other than the exposed pads and holes (i.e., the wires) are underneath the solder mask. Not infrequently, blue or even red solder masks are used.
By Madeleine Catherine. Car Wiring. Published at Friday, January 12th 2018, 06:20:13 AM. Electricity flows from a battery in one direction only, and some components work only if the flow through them is in the correct direction. This acceptance of a one-way flow is called polarity. On most cars the negative () battery terminal is earthed and the positive (+) one feeds the electrical system.
By Madeleine Catherine. Motor. Published at Thursday, January 11th 2018, 18:44:58 PM. A step motor is highly resonant because it is a mass-spring system. The “mass” portion is the rotor and load inertia while the “spring” portion is the restoring torque of the magnetic field that drags the rotor along. Because of this, velocity lags torque by 90 degrees.
By Lydie Honorine. Car Wiring. Published at Thursday, January 11th 2018, 18:31:10 PM. It just takes a little more time to duplicate your wiring into a spare wiring harness. Make two or three if you like, the parts are very inexpensive. Also keep spare switches on hand in your race trailer so that if one breaks or fails to function, you’ll be able to replace it quickly.
By Madeleine Catherine. Circuit. Published at Thursday, January 11th 2018, 15:49:52 PM. When multiple components are connected in parallel, the voltage drop is the same across all components. When multiple components are connected in series, the total voltage is the sum of the voltages across each component. These two statements can be generalized as Kirchoff’s Voltage Law (KVL), which states that the sum of voltages around any closed loop (e.g. starting at one node, and ending at the same node) is zero.
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