By Lydie Honorine. Circuit. Publised at Friday, December 22nd 2017, 23:34:06 PM. Double-layer or double-sided PCBs have a base material with a thin layer of conductive metal, like copper, applied to both sides of the board. Holes drilled through the board allow circuits on one side of the board to connect to circuits on the other.
By Madeleine Catherine. Diagram. Publised at Wednesday, July 05th 2017, 04:09:04 AM. Sometimes, to make schematics more legible, we’ll give a net a name and label it, rather than routing a wire all over the schematic. Nets with the same name are assumed to be connected, even though there isn’t a visible wire connecting them. Names can either be written directly on top of the net, or they can be “tags”, hanging off the wire.
By Jessica Mireille. Circuit. Published at Wednesday, December 20th 2017, 15:20:13 PM. A simple low-pass filter circuit, which allows low frequency signals to pass through the circuit while attenuating high-frequency signals, can be made using a resistor and capacitor in series.The transfer function of this filter can be determined by analyzing the circuit as a voltage divider,
By Bertille Solange. Power. Published at Wednesday, December 20th 2017, 14:46:18 PM. The Standard regulator is usually best for AC-powered applications, where the low cost and high load current make it the ideal choice. In AC-powered applications, the voltage across the regulator is usually at least 3V or more, so dropout voltage is not critical.
By Madeleine Catherine. Diagram. Published at Wednesday, December 20th 2017, 14:45:40 PM. A block diagram shows a higher level (or organizational layout) of functional units in a circuit (or a device, machine, or collection of these). It is meant to show data flow or organization between separate units of function. A block diagram gives you an overview of the interconnected nature of circuit assemblies or components.
By Lydie Honorine. Diagram. Published at Wednesday, December 20th 2017, 14:40:46 PM. In a digital circuit, power supply voltage levels are constrained to two distinct values – “logic high voltage” (called LHV or Vdd) and “logic low voltage” (called LLV or GND). The GND node in any circuit is the universal reference voltage against which all other voltages are measured (in modern digital circuits, GND is typically the lowest voltage in the circuit). In a schematic, it is often difficult to show lines connecting all GND nodes; rather, any nodes labeled GND are assumed to be connected into the same node. Often, a downward pointing triangle symbol, is attached to a GND node in addition to (or instead of) the GND label. The Vdd node in a digital circuit is typically the highest voltage, and all nodes labeled Vdd are tied together into the same node. Vdd may be thought of as the “source” of positive charges in a circuit, and GND may be thought of as the “source” of negative charges in a circuit. In modern digital systems, Vdd and GND are separated by anywhere from 1 to 5 volts. Older or inexpensive circuits typically use 5 volts, while newer circuits use 1-3 volts.
By Bertille Solange. Amplifier. Published at Wednesday, December 20th 2017, 14:39:29 PM. At this point things can get a bit problematic. Where should the connections be made and how to connect them. I have found that the best place for a central ground to be at the signal input ground. This will be where the connections to other external equipment is made. In a typical audio component there will be left and right channel inputs. Each channel will be via a shielded cable from the source (CD, FM, etc.). At the input jacks I have found that you can connect the two input signal ground returns together (not to the chassis) using isolated jacks provided you do not run shielded cable with both ends connected together internally to the unit. This part is often hard to envision, but you do not want multiple ground paths for the signal. This is likely to cause a ground loop, more about that later. A common error is to connect the signal grounds together at the input jacks and then run shielded cable inside the unit to something like a volume control and connect the shields together there. The shields then acts as conductors and not solely as shields. Use only one end of the shield inside equipment. If needed, run a separate ground wire to the volume control or where ever the signal is going. It will be the ground reference for the signal and the shields will be only shields. This can greatly improve the signal to noise in a piece of equipment.
By Bertille Solange. Diagram. Published at Wednesday, December 20th 2017, 14:05:12 PM. A wiring diagram is sometimes helpful to illustrate how a schematic can be realized in a prototype or production environment. A proper wiring diagram will be labeled and show connections in a way that prevents confusion about how connections are made. Typically they are designed for end-users or installers. They focus on connections rather than components
By Alix Loane. Circuit. Published at Wednesday, December 20th 2017, 13:59:31 PM. When multiple components are connected in series, each component must carry the same current. When multiple components are connected in parallel, the total current is the sum of the currents flowing through each individual component. These statements are generalized as Kirchoff’s Current Law (KCL), which states that the sum of currents entering and exiting a node must be zero.
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