By Charlotte Myriam. Circuit. Publised at Friday, December 01st 2017, 09:55:05 AM. These are commonly termed as IC’s. They are usually in form of chips and microchips. This is a set of multiple electronic circuits on a small semiconductor device (normally silicon). With the advancement of technology, these IC’s prove to be extremely beneficial. They are present in any electronic device you can name. From computers, mobiles to other digital appliances you have multiple IC’s present in them. Their main components are a combination of Diodes, transistors and microprocessors. The microprocessors provide memory to the device. With the help of the microprocessor the electronic devices can perform logical or protocol applications.
By Bertille Solange. Amplifier. Published at Monday, December 25th 2017, 06:04:45 AM. Unfortunately we are not quite done yet. I mentioned the concept of a ground loop earlier. This is a particularly insidious problem that can easily ruin a good project. In very general terms it is formed whenever there are multiple signal ground paths to the same termination. I can be internal or external to the piece of equipment. The most frequent result is a hum that either will not go away or happens only when something is connected to the piece of equipment. I need now to provide a few brief words about hum. If the hum is at the same frequency as the AC mains (either 50 or 60 Hz typically) then it is likely from interconnections external to the equipment or poor shielding internal to the equipment. If the hum is at twice the mains frequency then it nearly always because of inadequate power supply filtering. Ground loops are usually at the mains frequency. So if you encounter one, then you must search for the alternate ground paths that relate to the signal chain. If it external (occurs only when the equipment is attached to an external item), then check for things like phonograph grounding at the phonograph end. As an example I have seen is when one terminal of a cartridge connected to the ground in the tone arm (OK and fairly common) and a separate ground from the same tone arm (not OK) is provided for connection to the amplifier chassis ground (this is not to be confused to the situation when there is a separate ground wire from the phonograph chassis that has no connection to the ground in the cartridge). Since both the signal ground and tone arm ground are connected at the phonograph they will form a ground loop (between the shields and ground wire) when connected to the amplifier. The solution in such cases is to separate the grounds at the phonograph. An internal example was mentioned earlier when both ends of internal shielded cables are joined in two different places (at the input jacks and volume control). The irony of the situation and part of the insidious nature of ground loops is that they can on occasion be benign and not cause hum. They can later show up when a new piece of equipment is attached to the system. In all cases however, they have the same fundamental cause, alternate paths for the signal return.
By Valentine Sybille. Circuit. Published at Monday, December 25th 2017, 05:39:30 AM. The circuits and components of a double-layer PCB board are usually connected in one of two ways: either utilizing a through-hole or with the use of a surface-mount. A through-hole connection means that small wires, known as leads, are fed through the holes, with each end of the leads then soldered to the right component.
By Valentine Sybille. Amplifier. Published at Monday, December 25th 2017, 05:18:44 AM. An input signal will cause the transistor to operate as normal in its Active region thereby eliminating any crossover distortion which is present in class B configurations. A small Collector current will flow when there is no input signal but it is much less than that for the Class A amplifier configuration.
By Alix Loane. Diagram. Published at Monday, December 25th 2017, 03:55:15 AM. There are drawing programs, and there are schematic capture programs. All schematic capture programs will produce output for inclusion in publications. However, these programs have different goals, and it shows. Rarely is the output of a schematic capture program really suitable for publication; often it is not even readable, or cannot be scaled. Engineers who really want to have a useful schematic drawing of a circuit usually redraw the circuit in a general drawing program, which can be both tedious and prone to introducing new errors.
By Alix Loane. Circuit. Published at Monday, December 25th 2017, 03:27:19 AM. Most electronic circuits can be represented as a system with an input and an output. The input signal is typically a voltage that is generated by a sensor or by another circuit. The output signal is also
By Madeleine Catherine. Circuit. Published at Monday, December 25th 2017, 02:34:45 AM. When multiple components are connected in series, each component must carry the same current. When multiple components are connected in parallel, the total current is the sum of the currents flowing through each individual component. These statements are generalized as Kirchoff’s Current Law (KCL), which states that the sum of currents entering and exiting a node must be zero.
By Lydie Honorine. Circuit. Published at Monday, December 25th 2017, 02:27:56 AM. The real part and imaginary part of impedance are interpreted as a resistive part that dissipates energy and a reactive part that stores energy. Resistors can only dissipate energy and therefore their impedances have only a real part. Capacitors and inductors can only store energy and therefore their impedances have only an imaginary part. When resistors, capacitors, and inductors are combined, the overall impedance may have both real and imaginary parts. It is important to note that the definition of impedance preserves the definition of resistance.
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