By Cyrielle Marjolaine. Diagram. Publised at Tuesday, December 19th 2017, 00:21:22 AM. In contrast to digital circuits, analog circuits use signals whose voltage levels are not constrained to two distinct levels, but instead can assume any value between Vdd and GND. Many input devices, particularly those using electronic sensors (e.g., microphones, cameras, thermometers, pressure sensors, motion and proximity detectors, etc.) produce analog voltages at their outputs. In modern electronic devices, it is likely that such signals will be converted to digital signals before they are used within the device. For example, a digital voice-memo recording device uses an analog microphone circuit to convert sound pressure waves into voltage waves on an internal circuit node. A special circuit called an analog-to-digital converter, or ADC, converts that analog voltage to a binary number that can be represented as a bus in a digital circuit. An ADC functions by taking samples of the input analog signal, measuring the magnitude of the input voltage signal (usually with reference to GND), and assigning a binary number to the measured magnitude. Once an analog signal has been converted to a binary number, a bus can carry that digital information around a circuit. In a similar manner, digital signals can be reconstituted into analog signals using a digital-to-analog converter. Thus, a binary number that represents a sample of an audio waveform can be converted to an analog signal that can, for example, drive a speaker.
By Bertille Solange. Diagram. Published at Saturday, December 30th 2017, 17:52:52 PM. Variable resistors and potentiometers each augment the standard resistor symbol with an arrow. The variable resistor remains a two-terminal device, so the arrow is just laid diagonally across the middle. A potentiometer is a three-terminal device, so the arrow becomes the third terminal (the wiper).
By Cyrielle Marjolaine. Circuit. Published at Saturday, December 30th 2017, 17:29:18 PM. An often used and sometimes confusing term in electronic circuits is the word ground. The ground is a circuit node to which all voltages in a circuit are referenced. In a constant voltage supply circuit, one terminal from each voltage supply is typically connected to ground, or is grounded. For example, the negative terminal of a positive power supply is usually connected to ground so that any current drawn out of the positive terminal can be put back into the negative terminal via ground.
By Valentine Sybille. Car Wiring. Published at Saturday, December 30th 2017, 13:36:45 PM. This type of circuit is called an earth-return system any part of it connected to the car body is said to be earthed. If the battery voltage drops, less current flows, and eventually there is not enough to make the components work.
By Valentine Sybille. Car Wiring. Published at Saturday, December 30th 2017, 12:56:44 PM. Wire and cable sizes are classified by the maximum amperage that they can carry safely. A complex network of wires runs through the car. To avoid confusion, each wire is colour coded (but only within the car: there is no national or international system of colour-coding).
By Cyrielle Marjolaine. Car Wiring. Published at Saturday, December 30th 2017, 12:48:04 PM. As you know, a diesel engine differs from other liquid fuel engines in one major respect: the fuel/air charge is ignited by cylinder pressure and resulting heat, instead of via an electrical ignition system (diesel-fueled engines don’t use spark plugs).
By Charlotte Myriam. Car Wiring. Published at Saturday, December 30th 2017, 08:57:08 AM. The most common type of fuse is a short length of thin wire enclosed in a heatproof casing often glass. The size of the fuse wire is the thinnest that can carry the normal current of the circuit without overheating, and it is rated in amps.
By Alix Loane. Car Wiring. Published at Saturday, December 30th 2017, 08:48:04 AM. This is called a negative earth system, and when buying an electrical accessory a radio, for example check that it is of a type suitable for your cars system. Fitting a radio with the incorrect polarity will damage the set, but most car radios have an external switch for setting the polarity to suit that of the car. Switch to the correct setting before fitting.
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