By Lydie Honorine. Circuit. Publised at Friday, December 22nd 2017, 23:34:06 PM. Voltage and current sources can be independent or dependent. Their respective circuit symbols. Independent sources are usually shown as a circle while dependent sources are usually shown as a diamond-shape. Independent sources can have a DC output or a functional output; some examples are a sine wave, square wave, impulse, and linear ramp. Dependent sources can be used to implement a voltage or current which is a function of some other voltage or current in the circuit. Dependent sources are often used to model active circuits that are used for signal amplification.
By Madeleine Catherine. Diagram. Publised at Wednesday, July 05th 2017, 04:09:04 AM. A capacitor is a two-terminal device that can store electric energy in the form of charged particles. You can think of a capacitor as a reservoir of charge that takes time to fill or empty. The voltage across a capacitor is proportional to the amount of charge it is storing – the more charge added to a capacitor of a given size, the larger the voltage across the capacitor. It is not possible to instantaneously move charge to or from a capacitor, so it is not possible to instantaneously change the voltage across a capacitor. It is this property that makes capacitors useful on Digilent boards and in many other applications.
By Jessica Mireille. Circuit. Published at Tuesday, December 19th 2017, 02:08:03 AM. Most electronic circuits can be represented as a system with an input and an output. The input signal is typically a voltage that is generated by a sensor or by another circuit. The output signal is also
By Sasha Sara. Amplifier. Published at Tuesday, December 19th 2017, 02:01:05 AM. We still have three separate grounds. At the input jack ground I connect a single wire from the power supply ground. I like to use something with low impedance to do this, often silver wire. Also at the input jack ground I attach a single wire from the active circuitry ground also with a low impedance wire. In this arrangement, neither ground is contaminated with voltages from the other. An obvious question now is that if you provide power to something in the active portion of the circuit, will not the current end up in the signal ground. The short answer is yes. It is also unavoidable and generally rather small in magnitude and normally does not cause problems. An exception is in power output stages. The large amount of current involved can cause noise in the signal ground so I ground them separately to the input jack ground. Could you run separate ground wires from each place in the active circuitry that puts current into the ground path? Certainly, and it would be a type of "star" ground system. I find generally it unnecessary. I can achieve signal to noise ratios of -90 dBV in high gain circuits without going to that method.
By Madeleine Catherine. Diagram. Published at Tuesday, December 19th 2017, 01:28:27 AM. Knowing how to read circuits is a very useful skill that will help you out all the time. especially if you start messing around with building little electronics projects.
By Madeleine Catherine. Diode. Published at Tuesday, December 19th 2017, 01:03:57 AM. For silicon diodes, the typical forward voltage is 0.7 volts, nominal. For germanium diodes, the forward voltage is only 0.3 volts. The chemical constituency of the P-N junction comprising the diode accounts for its nominal forward voltage figure, which is why silicon and germanium diodes have such different forward voltages. Forward voltage drop remains approximately constant for a wide range of diode currents, meaning that diode voltage drop is not like that of a resistor or even a normal (closed) switch. For most simplified circuit analysis, the voltage drop across a conducting diode may be considered constant at the nominal figure and not related to the amount of current.
By Jessica Mireille. Motor. Published at Tuesday, December 19th 2017, 00:50:09 AM. At this point it is important to introduce the concept of overdrive ration. This is the ration between the power supply voltage and the motor’s rated voltage. An empirically derived maximum is 25:1, meaning the power supply voltage should never exceed 25 times the motor’s rated voltage or 32 times the square root of motor inductance. Below is a graph of measured iron losses for a 4A, 3V motor. Notice in Figure 16 how the iron losses range from insignificant to being the major cause of heating in the motor compared to a constant 12W copper loss (4A times 3V).
By Jessica Mireille. Diagram. Published at Tuesday, December 19th 2017, 00:43:41 AM. Now’s the fun stuff. Completing an electrical engineering degree and then getting a job in the field means you will see a lot a lot a lot of these schematics. It’s important to understand exactly what is going on with these. While they can (and will) get very complex, these are just a few of the common graphics to get your footing on.
By Jessica Mireille. Diagram. Published at Tuesday, December 19th 2017, 00:40:08 AM. In contrast to digital circuits, analog circuits use signals whose voltage levels are not constrained to two distinct levels, but instead can assume any value between Vdd and GND. Many input devices, particularly those using electronic sensors (e.g., microphones, cameras, thermometers, pressure sensors, motion and proximity detectors, etc.) produce analog voltages at their outputs. In modern electronic devices, it is likely that such signals will be converted to digital signals before they are used within the device. For example, a digital voice-memo recording device uses an analog microphone circuit to convert sound pressure waves into voltage waves on an internal circuit node. A special circuit called an analog-to-digital converter, or ADC, converts that analog voltage to a binary number that can be represented as a bus in a digital circuit. An ADC functions by taking samples of the input analog signal, measuring the magnitude of the input voltage signal (usually with reference to GND), and assigning a binary number to the measured magnitude. Once an analog signal has been converted to a binary number, a bus can carry that digital information around a circuit. In a similar manner, digital signals can be reconstituted into analog signals using a digital-to-analog converter. Thus, a binary number that represents a sample of an audio waveform can be converted to an analog signal that can, for example, drive a speaker.
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