By Cyrielle Marjolaine. Diagram. Publised at Monday, November 20th 2017, 13:21:10 PM. In contrast to digital circuits, analog circuits use signals whose voltage levels are not constrained to two distinct levels, but instead can assume any value between Vdd and GND. Many input devices, particularly those using electronic sensors (e.g., microphones, cameras, thermometers, pressure sensors, motion and proximity detectors, etc.) produce analog voltages at their outputs. In modern electronic devices, it is likely that such signals will be converted to digital signals before they are used within the device. For example, a digital voice-memo recording device uses an analog microphone circuit to convert sound pressure waves into voltage waves on an internal circuit node. A special circuit called an analog-to-digital converter, or ADC, converts that analog voltage to a binary number that can be represented as a bus in a digital circuit. An ADC functions by taking samples of the input analog signal, measuring the magnitude of the input voltage signal (usually with reference to GND), and assigning a binary number to the measured magnitude. Once an analog signal has been converted to a binary number, a bus can carry that digital information around a circuit. In a similar manner, digital signals can be reconstituted into analog signals using a digital-to-analog converter. Thus, a binary number that represents a sample of an audio waveform can be converted to an analog signal that can, for example, drive a speaker.
By Sasha Sara. Circuit. Published at Wednesday, January 10th 2018, 13:48:10 PM. Many different types of components and devices can be found in modern circuits, including resistors, capacitors, and inductors, semiconductor devices like diodes, transistors, and integrated circuits, transducers like microphones, light sensors and motions sensors, actuators like motors and solenoids, and various other devices like heating and lighting elements. Devices in a circuit are connected to one another by means of electrical conductors, or wires. These wires can move electric currents between various points in a circuit. Once a wire connects two or more devices, the wire and all attached device connectors are said to form a single circuit node or net. Any electrical activity on a given net is communicated to all devices attached to the net. Certain nets provide electric power to devices, and other nets carry information between devices. Nets that carry information are called signals, and signals transport information encoded as voltage levels around a circuit. Signal nets typically use smaller conductors, and transport very small currents. Nets that carry power are called supply rails (or just supplies) and supply rails transport electric power around a circuit. Power nets typically use much larger conductors that signal nets, because they must transport larger currents.
By Valentine Sybille. Motor. Published at Wednesday, January 10th 2018, 06:56:10 AM. What if you don’t have drawings? What if the customer (the production department if you’re in maintenance) just wants a motor installed and the wiring is up to you? Your first task is to identify how many leads the motor has.
By Charlotte Myriam. Car Wiring. Published at Wednesday, January 10th 2018, 04:08:19 AM. When you begin the rewiring of your car, choose good material, as in new wire and quality terminals. Use a gauge of wire sufficient to carry the amperage load for the work it will be doing. Always use closed-end terminals, not the U type.
By Cyrielle Marjolaine. Diagram. Published at Wednesday, January 10th 2018, 00:54:54 AM. There are two commonly used capacitor symbols. One symbol represents a polarized (usually electrolytic or tantalum) capacitor, and the other is for non-polarized caps. In each case there are two terminals, running perpendicularly into plates. The symbol with one curved plate indicates that the capacitor is polarized. The curved plate represents the cathode of the capacitor, which should be at a lower voltage than the positive, anode pin. A plus sign might also be added to the positive pin of the polarized capacitor symbol.
By Valentine Sybille. Car Wiring. Published at Wednesday, January 10th 2018, 00:32:40 AM. When you begin the rewiring of your car, choose good material, as in new wire and quality terminals. Use a gauge of wire sufficient to carry the amperage load for the work it will be doing. Always use closed-end terminals, not the U type.
By Cyrielle Marjolaine. Motor. Published at Wednesday, January 10th 2018, 00:18:44 AM. At this point it is important to introduce the concept of overdrive ration. This is the ration between the power supply voltage and the motor’s rated voltage. An empirically derived maximum is 25:1, meaning the power supply voltage should never exceed 25 times the motor’s rated voltage or 32 times the square root of motor inductance. Below is a graph of measured iron losses for a 4A, 3V motor. Notice in Figure 16 how the iron losses range from insignificant to being the major cause of heating in the motor compared to a constant 12W copper loss (4A times 3V).
By Cyrielle Marjolaine. Motor. Published at Tuesday, January 09th 2018, 22:58:18 PM. As shown earlier, motor output power is proportional to power supply voltage, doubling the voltage doubles the output power. However, iron losses outpace motor power by increasing non-linearly with increasing power supply voltage. Eventually the point is reached where the iron losses are so great that the motor cannot dissipate the heat generated. In a way this is nature’s way of keeping someone from getting 500HP from a NEMA 23 motor by using a 10kV power supply.
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