By Cyrielle Marjolaine. Diagram. Publised at Monday, November 20th 2017, 13:21:10 PM. In contrast to digital circuits, analog circuits use signals whose voltage levels are not constrained to two distinct levels, but instead can assume any value between Vdd and GND. Many input devices, particularly those using electronic sensors (e.g., microphones, cameras, thermometers, pressure sensors, motion and proximity detectors, etc.) produce analog voltages at their outputs. In modern electronic devices, it is likely that such signals will be converted to digital signals before they are used within the device. For example, a digital voice-memo recording device uses an analog microphone circuit to convert sound pressure waves into voltage waves on an internal circuit node. A special circuit called an analog-to-digital converter, or ADC, converts that analog voltage to a binary number that can be represented as a bus in a digital circuit. An ADC functions by taking samples of the input analog signal, measuring the magnitude of the input voltage signal (usually with reference to GND), and assigning a binary number to the measured magnitude. Once an analog signal has been converted to a binary number, a bus can carry that digital information around a circuit. In a similar manner, digital signals can be reconstituted into analog signals using a digital-to-analog converter. Thus, a binary number that represents a sample of an audio waveform can be converted to an analog signal that can, for example, drive a speaker.
By Valentine Sybille. Circuit. Published at Thursday, January 04th 2018, 07:29:50 AM. Voltage and current sources can be independent or dependent. Their respective circuit symbols. Independent sources are usually shown as a circle while dependent sources are usually shown as a diamond-shape. Independent sources can have a DC output or a functional output; some examples are a sine wave, square wave, impulse, and linear ramp. Dependent sources can be used to implement a voltage or current which is a function of some other voltage or current in the circuit. Dependent sources are often used to model active circuits that are used for signal amplification.
By Madeleine Catherine. Motor. Published at Wednesday, January 03rd 2018, 17:42:31 PM. The result now is a two-part speed-torque curve which features constant torque from zero speed until it intersects the motor’s natural load line, called the corner speed, beyond which the motor is in the constant power region.
By Lydie Honorine. Circuit. Published at Wednesday, January 03rd 2018, 11:55:52 AM. Many different types of components and devices can be found in modern circuits, including resistors, capacitors, and inductors, semiconductor devices like diodes, transistors, and integrated circuits, transducers like microphones, light sensors and motions sensors, actuators like motors and solenoids, and various other devices like heating and lighting elements. Devices in a circuit are connected to one another by means of electrical conductors, or wires. These wires can move electric currents between various points in a circuit. Once a wire connects two or more devices, the wire and all attached device connectors are said to form a single circuit node or net. Any electrical activity on a given net is communicated to all devices attached to the net. Certain nets provide electric power to devices, and other nets carry information between devices. Nets that carry information are called signals, and signals transport information encoded as voltage levels around a circuit. Signal nets typically use smaller conductors, and transport very small currents. Nets that carry power are called supply rails (or just supplies) and supply rails transport electric power around a circuit. Power nets typically use much larger conductors that signal nets, because they must transport larger currents.
By Alix Loane. Motor. Published at Wednesday, January 03rd 2018, 11:13:57 AM. What comes with the increased motor power with increased power supply voltage is increased motor heating; this heating increases more rapidly than output power and ultimately sets the maximum output power from the motor. That is to say, the limiting factor in how much power a motor can deliver is ultimately determined by how much heat it can safely dissipate.
By Valentine Sybille. Circuit. Published at Wednesday, January 03rd 2018, 06:29:30 AM. If the components of the circuit are connected in one single path is it termed as series. The same current would flow through all the components while the voltage would differ from one component to another. For example you have lit three lamps in series to the same power source, the first one would receive more voltage than the last.
By Sasha Sara. Circuit. Published at Wednesday, January 03rd 2018, 05:01:52 AM. The concept of complex impedance introduces a unified representation for resistors, capacitors, and inductors, whereby a circuit’s frequency response from input to output can be determined using KVL and KCL, where each element is assigned the appropriate impedance. The key assumption to this point is that the input to the circuit must consist solely of DC and/or sinusoidal signals. Now, this analysis is be extended to include arbitrary input signals by using the mathematical techniques of Laplace transforms.
By Lydie Honorine. Circuit. Published at Wednesday, January 03rd 2018, 00:23:56 AM. An electric current is defined as free flow of electrons and the motivating force behind that free flow of electrons is called Voltage. Voltage is the measurement of potential energy that would move the electrons between two points. Voltage is the push that the electrons require to move within a circuit. Voltage is measured by Volt and Current is measured by Ampere.
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