By Charlotte Myriam. Diagram. Publised at Monday, November 20th 2017, 14:55:41 PM. The slide switches are also known as “single throw-double pole” (STDP) switches, because only one switch (or throw) exists, but two positions (or poles) are available (a pole is an electrical contact to which the switch can make contact). These switches can be set to output either Vdd (when the actuator is closest to the board’s edge) or GND. The push button switches are also known as “momentary” contact buttons, because they only make contact while they are actively being pressed – they output a GND at rest, and a Vdd only when they are being pressed. The figure below shows typically pushbutton and slide switch circuits used on Digilent boards.
By Sasha Sara. Amplifier. Published at Tuesday, December 19th 2017, 02:01:05 AM. An input signal will cause the transistor to operate as normal in its Active region thereby eliminating any crossover distortion which is present in class B configurations. A small Collector current will flow when there is no input signal but it is much less than that for the Class A amplifier configuration.
By Madeleine Catherine. Diagram. Published at Tuesday, December 19th 2017, 01:28:27 AM. In a PCB that uses through-hole technology, holes are drilled through the pads so that component leads can be inserted and then fastened (soldered) in place. In a PCB that uses surface-mount technology, component leads are soldered directly to the pads on the surface. Each set of pads (or holes) in the PCB is intended to receive a particular component. To identify which component must be loaded where, reference designators are printed on the circuit board immediately adjacent to the pads using a silk-screen process. A parts list links a designated set of pads to a physical component by describing the component and assigning it a particular reference designator. The reference designators guide assemblers and testers when they are working with the PCB. Many components must be placed into the PCB in a particular orientation. By convention, components that require a particular orientation have one lead designated as pin 1. On the PCB, a square pad or silkscreen indicator typically denotes pin 1.
By Madeleine Catherine. Diode. Published at Tuesday, December 19th 2017, 01:03:57 AM. The conventional current flows from the positive (anode) terminal to the negative (cathode) terminal although the movement of electrons (electron flow) is in the opposite direction, from cathode to anode.
By Jessica Mireille. Motor. Published at Tuesday, December 19th 2017, 00:50:09 AM. A step motor is a constant output power transducer, where power is defined as torque multiplied by speed. This means motor torque is the inverse of motor speed. To help understand why a step motor’s power is independent of speed, we need to construct (figuratively) an ideal step motor.
By Jessica Mireille. Diagram. Published at Tuesday, December 19th 2017, 00:43:41 AM. In contrast to digital circuits, analog circuits use signals whose voltage levels are not constrained to two distinct levels, but instead can assume any value between Vdd and GND. Many input devices, particularly those using electronic sensors (e.g., microphones, cameras, thermometers, pressure sensors, motion and proximity detectors, etc.) produce analog voltages at their outputs. In modern electronic devices, it is likely that such signals will be converted to digital signals before they are used within the device. For example, a digital voice-memo recording device uses an analog microphone circuit to convert sound pressure waves into voltage waves on an internal circuit node. A special circuit called an analog-to-digital converter, or ADC, converts that analog voltage to a binary number that can be represented as a bus in a digital circuit. An ADC functions by taking samples of the input analog signal, measuring the magnitude of the input voltage signal (usually with reference to GND), and assigning a binary number to the measured magnitude. Once an analog signal has been converted to a binary number, a bus can carry that digital information around a circuit. In a similar manner, digital signals can be reconstituted into analog signals using a digital-to-analog converter. Thus, a binary number that represents a sample of an audio waveform can be converted to an analog signal that can, for example, drive a speaker.
By Jessica Mireille. Diagram. Published at Tuesday, December 19th 2017, 00:40:08 AM. A first look at a circuit diagram may be confusing, but if you can read a subway map, you can read schematics. The purpose is the same: getting from point A to point B. Literally, a circuit is the path that allows electricity to flow. If you know what to look for, it’ll become second nature. While at first you’ll just be reading them, eventually you will start creating your own. This guide will show you a few of the common symbols that you are sure to see in your future electrical engineering career.
By Cyrielle Marjolaine. Circuit. Published at Tuesday, December 19th 2017, 00:33:07 AM. A single-layer or single-sided PCB is one that is made out of a single layer of base material or substrate. One side of the base material is coated with a thin layer of metal. Copper is the most common coating due to how well it functions as an electrical conductor. Once the copper base plating is applied, a protective solder mask is usually applied, followed by the last silk-screen to mark out all of the elements on the board.
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