By Charlotte Myriam. Diagram. Publised at Monday, November 20th 2017, 14:55:41 PM. On all but the simplest PCBs, wires must be printed on more than one surface of fiberglass to allow for all the required component interconnections. Each surface containing printed wires is called a layer. In a relatively simple PCB that requires only two layers, only one piece of fiberglass is required since wires can be printed on both sides. In a more complex PCB where several layers are required, individual circuit boards are manufactured separately and then laminated together to form one multi-layer circuit board. To connect wires on two or more layers, small holes called vias are drilled through the wires and fiberglass board at the point where the wires on the different layers cross. The interior surface of these holes is coated with metal so that electric current can flow through the vias. Most Digilent boards are simple four or six layer boards; some more complex computer circuit boards have more than 20 layers.
By Lydie Honorine. Circuit. Published at Saturday, December 02nd 2017, 11:34:14 AM. A single-layer or single-sided PCB is one that is made out of a single layer of base material or substrate. One side of the base material is coated with a thin layer of metal. Copper is the most common coating due to how well it functions as an electrical conductor. Once the copper base plating is applied, a protective solder mask is usually applied, followed by the last silk-screen to mark out all of the elements on the board.
By Charlotte Myriam. Circuit. Published at Friday, December 01st 2017, 09:55:05 AM. When multiple components are connected in series, each component must carry the same current. When multiple components are connected in parallel, the total current is the sum of the currents flowing through each individual component. These statements are generalized as Kirchoff’s Current Law (KCL), which states that the sum of currents entering and exiting a node must be zero.
By Alix Loane. Power. Published at Wednesday, November 29th 2017, 09:01:12 AM. It is possible for RO to be negative – an undesirable characteristic often caused by poor layout design in the regulator wiring resulting in inadvertent positive feedback. With negative output resistance the output voltage increases with the load current.
By Sasha Sara. Circuit. Published at Monday, November 27th 2017, 07:42:24 AM. The concept of complex impedance introduces a unified representation for resistors, capacitors, and inductors, whereby a circuit’s frequency response from input to output can be determined using KVL and KCL, where each element is assigned the appropriate impedance. The key assumption to this point is that the input to the circuit must consist solely of DC and/or sinusoidal signals. Now, this analysis is be extended to include arbitrary input signals by using the mathematical techniques of Laplace transforms.
By Valentine Sybille. Power. Published at Sunday, November 26th 2017, 07:35:26 AM. If the load current increases to the limiting value, the current limiting circuitry will take control and force the load current to the set limiting value (overriding the voltage error amplifier). The voltage error amplifier can resume control only if the load current is reduced sufficiently to cause the current limiting circuits to release control. This is covered in detail in the "Current Limiting" section.
By Jessica Mireille. Diagram. Published at Thursday, November 23rd 2017, 06:53:21 AM. Learning about basic electronics and creating your own projects is a lot easier than you may think. In this tutorial, we’re going to give you a brief overview of common electronic components and explain what their functions are. You will then learn about schematic diagrams and how they are used to design and build circuits. And finally, you will put this information to use by creating your first basic circuit.
By Alix Loane. Circuit. Published at Wednesday, November 22nd 2017, 04:30:48 AM. The real part and imaginary part of impedance are interpreted as a resistive part that dissipates energy and a reactive part that stores energy. Resistors can only dissipate energy and therefore their impedances have only a real part. Capacitors and inductors can only store energy and therefore their impedances have only an imaginary part. When resistors, capacitors, and inductors are combined, the overall impedance may have both real and imaginary parts. It is important to note that the definition of impedance preserves the definition of resistance.
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