By Cyrielle Marjolaine. Diagram. Publised at Sunday, November 19th 2017, 23:35:54 PM. Variable resistors and potentiometers each augment the standard resistor symbol with an arrow. The variable resistor remains a two-terminal device, so the arrow is just laid diagonally across the middle. A potentiometer is a three-terminal device, so the arrow becomes the third terminal (the wiper).
By Lydie Honorine. Circuit. Published at Monday, December 25th 2017, 02:27:56 AM. Voltage and current sources can be independent or dependent. Their respective circuit symbols. Independent sources are usually shown as a circle while dependent sources are usually shown as a diamond-shape. Independent sources can have a DC output or a functional output; some examples are a sine wave, square wave, impulse, and linear ramp. Dependent sources can be used to implement a voltage or current which is a function of some other voltage or current in the circuit. Dependent sources are often used to model active circuits that are used for signal amplification.
By Alix Loane. Diode. Published at Monday, December 25th 2017, 02:07:04 AM. When P and N type silicon are brought together during manufacture, a junction is created where the P type and N type materials meet, and holes close to the junction in the P type silicon are attracted into negatively charged N type material at the other side of the junction. Also, electrons close to the junction in the N type silicon are attracted into the positively charged P type silicon. Therefore along the junction between the P and N type silicon, a small natural potential is set up between the P and N semiconductor material with negatively charged electrons now on the P type side of the junction, and positively charged holes on the N side of the junction. This layer of opposite polarity charge carriers builds up until it is just sufficient to prevent the free movement of any further holes or electrons. Because of this natural electrical potential across the junction, a very thin layer has been formed between the P and N layers at the PN junction that is now depleted of charge carriers and so is called the Depletion Layer. When a diode is connected into a circuit therefore, no current can flow between anode and cathode until the anode is made more positive than the cathode by a forward potential or voltage(VF) at least sufficient to overcome the natural reverse potential of the junction. This value depends mainly on the materials the P and N layers of the diode are made from and the amount of doping used. Different types of diode have natural reverse potentials ranging from approximately 0.1V to 2 or 3V. Silicon PN junction diodes have a junction potential of about 0.6V to 0.7V
By Lydie Honorine. Circuit. Published at Monday, December 25th 2017, 02:06:30 AM. We all know about electricity. It is the flow electrons. Hence the word electricity is derived from the word electrons. A battery itself doesn’t work, if you hold it up in air, there would be no passage of electric current. Hence you need a circuit. In Simple terms an electronic circuit is a closed pathway for electrons to flow.
By Charlotte Myriam. Circuit. Published at Monday, December 25th 2017, 01:01:48 AM. Double-layer or double-sided PCBs have a base material with a thin layer of conductive metal, like copper, applied to both sides of the board. Holes drilled through the board allow circuits on one side of the board to connect to circuits on the other.
By Bertille Solange. Circuit. Published at Monday, December 25th 2017, 00:43:32 AM. The concept of complex impedance introduces a unified representation for resistors, capacitors, and inductors, whereby a circuit’s frequency response from input to output can be determined using KVL and KCL, where each element is assigned the appropriate impedance. The key assumption to this point is that the input to the circuit must consist solely of DC and/or sinusoidal signals. Now, this analysis is be extended to include arbitrary input signals by using the mathematical techniques of Laplace transforms.
By Sasha Sara. Circuit. Published at Monday, December 25th 2017, 00:40:11 AM. Surface mount PCBs do not utilize wires as connectors. Instead, many small leads are soldered directly to the board, meaning that the board itself is used as a wiring surface for the different components. This allows circuits to be completed using less space, freeing up space to allow the board to complete more functions, usually at higher speeds and a lighter weight than a through-hole board would allow.
By Cyrielle Marjolaine. Motor. Published at Monday, December 25th 2017, 00:20:31 AM. A step motor is a constant output power transducer, where power is defined as torque multiplied by speed. This means motor torque is the inverse of motor speed. To help understand why a step motor’s power is independent of speed, we need to construct (figuratively) an ideal step motor.
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