By Jessica Mireille. Diagram. Publised at Saturday, December 23rd 2017, 14:53:38 PM. In a PCB that uses through-hole technology, holes are drilled through the pads so that component leads can be inserted and then fastened (soldered) in place. In a PCB that uses surface-mount technology, component leads are soldered directly to the pads on the surface. Each set of pads (or holes) in the PCB is intended to receive a particular component. To identify which component must be loaded where, reference designators are printed on the circuit board immediately adjacent to the pads using a silk-screen process. A parts list links a designated set of pads to a physical component by describing the component and assigning it a particular reference designator. The reference designators guide assemblers and testers when they are working with the PCB. Many components must be placed into the PCB in a particular orientation. By convention, components that require a particular orientation have one lead designated as pin 1. On the PCB, a square pad or silkscreen indicator typically denotes pin 1.
By Bertille Solange. Power. Publised at Friday, December 29th 2017, 04:58:06 AM. The Standard regulator is usually best for AC-powered applications, where the low cost and high load current make it the ideal choice. In AC-powered applications, the voltage across the regulator is usually at least 3V or more, so dropout voltage is not critical.
By Valentine Sybille. Diagram. Published at Monday, January 01st 2018, 11:51:03 AM. In contrast to digital circuits, analog circuits use signals whose voltage levels are not constrained to two distinct levels, but instead can assume any value between Vdd and GND. Many input devices, particularly those using electronic sensors (e.g., microphones, cameras, thermometers, pressure sensors, motion and proximity detectors, etc.) produce analog voltages at their outputs. In modern electronic devices, it is likely that such signals will be converted to digital signals before they are used within the device. For example, a digital voice-memo recording device uses an analog microphone circuit to convert sound pressure waves into voltage waves on an internal circuit node. A special circuit called an analog-to-digital converter, or ADC, converts that analog voltage to a binary number that can be represented as a bus in a digital circuit. An ADC functions by taking samples of the input analog signal, measuring the magnitude of the input voltage signal (usually with reference to GND), and assigning a binary number to the measured magnitude. Once an analog signal has been converted to a binary number, a bus can carry that digital information around a circuit. In a similar manner, digital signals can be reconstituted into analog signals using a digital-to-analog converter. Thus, a binary number that represents a sample of an audio waveform can be converted to an analog signal that can, for example, drive a speaker.
By Charlotte Myriam. Motor. Published at Monday, January 01st 2018, 09:21:29 AM. What can be seen is there is not increase of the power output; the motor simply reaches its maximum power at a lower speed, all at the great expense of a four-fold increase in motor heating.
By Cyrielle Marjolaine. Diagram. Published at Monday, January 01st 2018, 08:30:28 AM. Several different resistors are used on Digilent boards. Some are used to limit LED current, and some are used on inputs (like the button and switch circuits) to both limit the currents flowing to the main chip, and to help protect against electrostatic discharge (or ESD – more on this topic later). The resistors on the Digilent boards, like most resistors used in digital systems, are physically small because they will not encounter large voltages or currents. For these smaller resistors, the resistor value in Ohms is printed in microscopic numbers on the resistor body, not visible to the naked eye.
By Charlotte Myriam. Motor. Published at Monday, January 01st 2018, 06:19:04 AM. The effect of setting the motor current to twice the rated value. This abuses the motor because it will dissipate four times as much heat as setting the current to its proper value. The actual increase in low-speed torque is considerably less than double because of magnetic saturation of the motor iron.
By Madeleine Catherine. Motor. Published at Monday, January 01st 2018, 06:16:35 AM. What if you don’t have drawings? What if the customer (the production department if you’re in maintenance) just wants a motor installed and the wiring is up to you? Your first task is to identify how many leads the motor has.
By Bertille Solange. Motor. Published at Monday, January 01st 2018, 05:05:03 AM. The easiest factor in choosing a power supply is its current rating, which is based on your motor ratings. A motor control will always draw less than 2/3 of the motor’s rated current when it is parallel (or half-winding) connected and 1/3 of the motor’s rated current when it is series (or full-winding) connected. That is to say, a 6 amp per phase motor will require a 4 amp power supply when wired in parallel and a 2 amp power supply when wired in series. If multiple motors and drives are used, add the current requirements of each to arrive at the total power supply current rating.
By Alix Loane. Motor. Published at Monday, January 01st 2018, 01:35:25 AM. Motor output doubles when the power supply voltage is doubled for either series or parallel-wired motors. Notice that a parallel-connected motor delivers performance identical to a series-connected motor running at twice the power supply voltage.
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