By Jessica Mireille. Diagram. Publised at Saturday, December 23rd 2017, 14:53:38 PM. In addition to reading this instructable it may be a good idea for you to read my other instructable "electronics components and what they do" to get a good understanding of what you are doing when building a project.
By Bertille Solange. Power. Publised at Friday, December 29th 2017, 04:58:06 AM. In shunt regulation a resistor is typically placed in series with the load and the unregulated voltage. The resistor is small enough so that the load could always receive somewhat more than the maximum current it would ever need. The shunt regulator is placed across the load and conducts excess current around the load such that the voltage across the load remains a constant as the load draws the actual current at any given time. A common shunt regulator is a Zener diode which is an example of an open loop system. Feedback control can also be used to drive the current through the control element (a transistor) across the load. Shunt regulators are generally only used for low power applications because they can be very inefficient. However, shunt regulators have an inherent fault current limiting feature and also can regulate even if the load is forcing current into the regulator rather than drawing current from it. Shunt regulators also have an interesting feature that the input current is constant – independent of load current (except if a load fault occurs – but that is a special case not in normal operation). Thus shunt regulators are very good at isolating a load with rapid and large current fluctuations.
By Valentine Sybille. Circuit. Published at Saturday, December 23rd 2017, 04:38:48 AM. Impedance is one of the most important concepts in electronic circuits. The purpose of impedance is to generalize the idea of resistance to create a component. To capture the behavior of resistors, capacitors, and inductors, for steadystate sinusoidal signals. This generalization is motivated by the fact that as long as the circuit is linear, its behavior can be analyzed using KVL and KCL.
By Valentine Sybille. Circuit. Published at Saturday, December 23rd 2017, 04:05:50 AM. Physical circuits are constructed of real, physical devices. They can be inspected, tested, and modified. They consume electric power when energized, and they can function properly and do some meaningful work, or they can malfunction and create serious hazards to health and property. Even small circuits that are quickly and easily constructed still take time and money to build, and they can take a very long time to perfect.
By Valentine Sybille. Diagram. Published at Saturday, December 23rd 2017, 03:44:55 AM. On all but the simplest PCBs, wires must be printed on more than one surface of fiberglass to allow for all the required component interconnections. Each surface containing printed wires is called a layer. In a relatively simple PCB that requires only two layers, only one piece of fiberglass is required since wires can be printed on both sides. In a more complex PCB where several layers are required, individual circuit boards are manufactured separately and then laminated together to form one multi-layer circuit board. To connect wires on two or more layers, small holes called vias are drilled through the wires and fiberglass board at the point where the wires on the different layers cross. The interior surface of these holes is coated with metal so that electric current can flow through the vias. Most Digilent boards are simple four or six layer boards; some more complex computer circuit boards have more than 20 layers.
By Bertille Solange. Diagram. Published at Saturday, December 23rd 2017, 03:33:27 AM. In contrast to digital circuits, analog circuits use signals whose voltage levels are not constrained to two distinct levels, but instead can assume any value between Vdd and GND. Many input devices, particularly those using electronic sensors (e.g., microphones, cameras, thermometers, pressure sensors, motion and proximity detectors, etc.) produce analog voltages at their outputs. In modern electronic devices, it is likely that such signals will be converted to digital signals before they are used within the device. For example, a digital voice-memo recording device uses an analog microphone circuit to convert sound pressure waves into voltage waves on an internal circuit node. A special circuit called an analog-to-digital converter, or ADC, converts that analog voltage to a binary number that can be represented as a bus in a digital circuit. An ADC functions by taking samples of the input analog signal, measuring the magnitude of the input voltage signal (usually with reference to GND), and assigning a binary number to the measured magnitude. Once an analog signal has been converted to a binary number, a bus can carry that digital information around a circuit. In a similar manner, digital signals can be reconstituted into analog signals using a digital-to-analog converter. Thus, a binary number that represents a sample of an audio waveform can be converted to an analog signal that can, for example, drive a speaker.
By Bertille Solange. Diagram. Published at Saturday, December 23rd 2017, 03:21:07 AM. Knowing how to read circuits is a very useful skill that will help you out all the time. especially if you start messing around with building little electronics projects.
By Sasha Sara. Diagram. Published at Saturday, December 23rd 2017, 02:47:52 AM. There are drawing programs, and there are schematic capture programs. All schematic capture programs will produce output for inclusion in publications. However, these programs have different goals, and it shows. Rarely is the output of a schematic capture program really suitable for publication; often it is not even readable, or cannot be scaled. Engineers who really want to have a useful schematic drawing of a circuit usually redraw the circuit in a general drawing program, which can be both tedious and prone to introducing new errors.
By Cyrielle Marjolaine. Diagram. Published at Saturday, December 23rd 2017, 02:43:16 AM. A PCB Layout is the resulting design from taking a schematic with specific components and determining how they will physically be laid out on a printed circuit board. To produce a PCB Layout, you must know the connections of components, component sizes (footprints), and a myriad of other properties (such as current, frequencies, emissions, reflections, high voltage gaps, safety considerations, manufacturing tolerances, etc.).
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