By Bertille Solange. Power. Publised at Friday, December 29th 2017, 04:58:06 AM. Many of the new LDO regulators are optimized for low quiescent current (like 75 to 150 mA), and provide significant improvement over typical regulators which draw several milliamps.
By Jessica Mireille. Diagram. Publised at Saturday, December 23rd 2017, 14:53:38 PM. Circuit components are manufactured with exposed metal pins (or leads) that are used to fasten them to the PCB both mechanically (so they will not fall off) and electrically (so current can pass between them). The soldering process, which provides a strong mechanical bond and a very good electrical connection, is used to fasten components to the PCB. During soldering, component leads are inserted through the holes in the PCB, and then the component leads and the through-hole plating metal are heated to above the melting point of the solder (about 500 to 700 degrees F). Solder (a metallic compound) is then melted and allowed to flow in and around the component lead and pad. The solder quickly cools to form a strong bond between the component and the PCB. The process of associating components with reference designators, loading them into their respective holes, and then soldering them in place comprises the PCB assembly process.
By Cyrielle Marjolaine. Diagram. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 07:36:43 AM. Inductors are usually represented by either a series of curved bumps, or loopy coils. International symbols may just define an inductor as a filled-in rectangle.
By Charlotte Myriam. Motor. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 07:36:40 AM. The drive is a current source in the constant torque region and adds no additional phase lag. In the constant power region however, the drive is a voltage source so it introduces an additional 90 degree phase lag. The total phase lag now is 180 degrees, which is a setup for a sustained and building motor oscillation. This oscillation is commonly called mid-band instability or mid-band resonance.
By Valentine Sybille. Diagram. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 07:35:16 AM. The unloaded PCB appears green because thin sheets of green plastic have been applied to both sides (otherwise the PCB would appear pale yellow). Called solder masks, these sheets cover all exposed metal other than the component pads and holes so that errant solder can not inadvertently short (or electrically connect) the printed wires. All metal surfaces other than the exposed pads and holes (i.e., the wires) are underneath the solder mask. Not infrequently, blue or even red solder masks are used.
By Lydie Honorine. Diagram. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 07:31:48 AM. Electronic components are often assembled and interconnected on a flat surface known as a circuit board. The several types of existing circuit boards may be divided into two broad categories: those intended for prototype or experimental circuits; and those intended for production and/or commercial sale. Circuit boards used for experimental work are often referred to as breadboards or protoboards. Breadboards allow engineers to construct circuits quickly, so that they can be studied and modified until an optimal design is discovered. In a typical breadboard use, components and wires are added to a circuit in an ad hoc manner as the design proceeds, with new data and new understanding dictating the course of the design. Since breadboard circuits exist only in the laboratory, no special consideration need be given to creating reliable or simple-to-manufacture circuits – the designer can focus exclusively on the circuits behavior. In contrast, circuit boards intended for production or commercial sale must have highly reliable wires and interconnects, permanent bonds to all components, and topographies amenable to mass production and thorough testing. And further, they must be made of a material that is reliable, low-cost, and easy to manufacture. A fiberglass substratewith copper wires (etched from laminated copper sheets) has been the PCB material of choice for the past several decades. The Digilent board is a simple example of such a board. Note that most often, production circuit board designs are finalized only after extensive breadboard phases. Components are permanently affixed to production boards using the soldering process.
By Madeleine Catherine. Circuit. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 07:11:55 AM. The circuits and components of a double-layer PCB board are usually connected in one of two ways: either utilizing a through-hole or with the use of a surface-mount. A through-hole connection means that small wires, known as leads, are fed through the holes, with each end of the leads then soldered to the right component.
By Cyrielle Marjolaine. Power. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 06:48:57 AM. In cases where thermal limiting occurs, both the output voltage and current will be reduced. When the output voltage drops below its nominal value, the error signal appearing at the voltage error amplifier will cause it to try and correct the regulator output voltage by driving its output high (and sourcing more current to the pass transistor).
By Jessica Mireille. Diagram. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 06:21:40 AM. Voltage nodes are single-terminal schematic components, which we can connect component terminals to in order to assign them to a specific voltage level. These are a special application of net names, meaning all terminals connected to a like-named voltage node are connected together.
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