By Madeleine Catherine. Circuit. Publised at Tuesday, August 29th 2017, 06:39:51 AM. Voltage is measured in units of Joules per Coulomb, known as a Volt (V). It is important to remember that voltage is not an absolute quantity, rather, it is always considered as a relative value between two points. In an electronic circuit, the electromagnetic problem of voltages at arbitrary points in space is typically simplified to voltages between nodes of circuit components such as resistors, capacitors, and transistors
By Jessica Mireille. Circuit. Published at Wednesday, December 20th 2017, 15:20:13 PM. Since single-layer/single-sided PCBs only have their various circuits and electrical components soldered onto one side, they are easy to design and manufacture. This popularity means that they can be purchased at a low-cost, especially for high-volume orders. The low-cost, high volume model means they are commonly used for a variety of applications, including calculators, cameras, radio and stereo equipment, solid state drives, printers and power supplies.
By Bertille Solange. Power. Published at Wednesday, December 20th 2017, 14:46:18 PM. Load regulation refers to the ability of a voltage regulator to maintain a constant voltage as the load current varies and is expressed as a percentage. Ideally, the load regulation would be zero percent meaning that the output voltage is perfectly independent of the load current. The equation for load regulation is as follows.
By Madeleine Catherine. Diagram. Published at Wednesday, December 20th 2017, 14:45:40 PM. In addition to reading this instructable it may be a good idea for you to read my other instructable "electronics components and what they do" to get a good understanding of what you are doing when building a project.
By Lydie Honorine. Diagram. Published at Wednesday, December 20th 2017, 14:40:46 PM. There are drawing programs, and there are schematic capture programs. All schematic capture programs will produce output for inclusion in publications. However, these programs have different goals, and it shows. Rarely is the output of a schematic capture program really suitable for publication; often it is not even readable, or cannot be scaled. Engineers who really want to have a useful schematic drawing of a circuit usually redraw the circuit in a general drawing program, which can be both tedious and prone to introducing new errors.
By Bertille Solange. Amplifier. Published at Wednesday, December 20th 2017, 14:39:29 PM. Unfortunately we are not quite done yet. I mentioned the concept of a ground loop earlier. This is a particularly insidious problem that can easily ruin a good project. In very general terms it is formed whenever there are multiple signal ground paths to the same termination. I can be internal or external to the piece of equipment. The most frequent result is a hum that either will not go away or happens only when something is connected to the piece of equipment. I need now to provide a few brief words about hum. If the hum is at the same frequency as the AC mains (either 50 or 60 Hz typically) then it is likely from interconnections external to the equipment or poor shielding internal to the equipment. If the hum is at twice the mains frequency then it nearly always because of inadequate power supply filtering. Ground loops are usually at the mains frequency. So if you encounter one, then you must search for the alternate ground paths that relate to the signal chain. If it external (occurs only when the equipment is attached to an external item), then check for things like phonograph grounding at the phonograph end. As an example I have seen is when one terminal of a cartridge connected to the ground in the tone arm (OK and fairly common) and a separate ground from the same tone arm (not OK) is provided for connection to the amplifier chassis ground (this is not to be confused to the situation when there is a separate ground wire from the phonograph chassis that has no connection to the ground in the cartridge). Since both the signal ground and tone arm ground are connected at the phonograph they will form a ground loop (between the shields and ground wire) when connected to the amplifier. The solution in such cases is to separate the grounds at the phonograph. An internal example was mentioned earlier when both ends of internal shielded cables are joined in two different places (at the input jacks and volume control). The irony of the situation and part of the insidious nature of ground loops is that they can on occasion be benign and not cause hum. They can later show up when a new piece of equipment is attached to the system. In all cases however, they have the same fundamental cause, alternate paths for the signal return.
By Bertille Solange. Diagram. Published at Wednesday, December 20th 2017, 14:05:12 PM. Inductors are usually represented by either a series of curved bumps, or loopy coils. International symbols may just define an inductor as a filled-in rectangle.
By Alix Loane. Circuit. Published at Wednesday, December 20th 2017, 13:59:31 PM. If the components are connected in a parallel format they would be termed to be a parallel series. In this sort of a connection all the components would receive the same voltage, while the current would be divided amongst the components.
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