By Madeleine Catherine. Circuit. Publised at Tuesday, August 29th 2017, 06:39:51 AM. Surface mount PCBs do not utilize wires as connectors. Instead, many small leads are soldered directly to the board, meaning that the board itself is used as a wiring surface for the different components. This allows circuits to be completed using less space, freeing up space to allow the board to complete more functions, usually at higher speeds and a lighter weight than a through-hole board would allow.
By Madeleine Catherine. Diagram. Published at Tuesday, December 19th 2017, 01:28:27 AM. In a digital circuit, power supply voltage levels are constrained to two distinct values – “logic high voltage” (called LHV or Vdd) and “logic low voltage” (called LLV or GND). The GND node in any circuit is the universal reference voltage against which all other voltages are measured (in modern digital circuits, GND is typically the lowest voltage in the circuit). In a schematic, it is often difficult to show lines connecting all GND nodes; rather, any nodes labeled GND are assumed to be connected into the same node. Often, a downward pointing triangle symbol, is attached to a GND node in addition to (or instead of) the GND label. The Vdd node in a digital circuit is typically the highest voltage, and all nodes labeled Vdd are tied together into the same node. Vdd may be thought of as the “source” of positive charges in a circuit, and GND may be thought of as the “source” of negative charges in a circuit. In modern digital systems, Vdd and GND are separated by anywhere from 1 to 5 volts. Older or inexpensive circuits typically use 5 volts, while newer circuits use 1-3 volts.
By Madeleine Catherine. Diode. Published at Tuesday, December 19th 2017, 01:03:57 AM. As the voltage applied between anode and cathode increases, forward current increases slowly at first, as charge carriers begin to cross the depletion layer then increasing rapidly in an approximately exponential manner. The resistance of the diode, when ‘turned on’ or conducting in a ‘forward biased’ mode is therefore not zero ohms, but is very low. Because forward conduction increases after the depletion potential is overcome in an approximately following exponential curve, forward resistance (V/I) varies slightly depending on the voltage applied.
By Jessica Mireille. Motor. Published at Tuesday, December 19th 2017, 00:50:09 AM. Before you actually make any bolted connections, verify the correct rotation using a rotation tester. Also make sure you connect the “ground” wire to the “grounding” terminal of the motor. Note that this must be the power supply ground conductor, not a wire leading to a ground rod nearby.
By Jessica Mireille. Diagram. Published at Tuesday, December 19th 2017, 00:43:41 AM. Inductors are usually represented by either a series of curved bumps, or loopy coils. International symbols may just define an inductor as a filled-in rectangle.
By Jessica Mireille. Diagram. Published at Tuesday, December 19th 2017, 00:40:08 AM. As discussed earlier, a digital circuit represents and manipulates information encoded as electric signals that can assume one of two voltages – logic-high voltage (or Vdd) and logic-low voltage (or GND). A digital circuit requires a power supply that can produce these two voltages, and these same supply voltages are also used to encode information in the form of two-state, or binary signals. Thus,if a given circuit node is at Vdd, then that signal is said to carry a logic ‘1’; if the node is at GND, then the node carries a logic ‘0’. The components in digital circuits are simple on/off switches that can pass logic ‘1’ and logic ‘0’ signals from one circuit node to another. Most typically, these switches are arranged to combine input signals to produce an output signal according to basic logic relationships. For example, one well-known logic circuit is an AND gate that combines two input signals to produce an output that is the logic AND of the inputs (i.e., if both input1 and input2 are a ‘1’, then the output is a ‘1’).
By Cyrielle Marjolaine. Circuit. Published at Tuesday, December 19th 2017, 00:33:07 AM. Electrical components such as resistors, capacitors, inductors, and transistors can all be represented by equivalent mechanical devices that support this analogy.
By Cyrielle Marjolaine. Diagram. Published at Tuesday, December 19th 2017, 00:21:22 AM. A PCB Layout is the resulting design from taking a schematic with specific components and determining how they will physically be laid out on a printed circuit board. To produce a PCB Layout, you must know the connections of components, component sizes (footprints), and a myriad of other properties (such as current, frequencies, emissions, reflections, high voltage gaps, safety considerations, manufacturing tolerances, etc.).
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