By Madeleine Catherine. Circuit. Publised at Saturday, August 05th 2017, 15:56:27 PM. When multiple components are connected in parallel, the voltage drop is the same across all components. When multiple components are connected in series, the total voltage is the sum of the voltages across each component. These two statements can be generalized as Kirchoff’s Voltage Law (KVL), which states that the sum of voltages around any closed loop (e.g. starting at one node, and ending at the same node) is zero.
By Madeleine Catherine. Circuit. Publised at Sunday, December 17th 2017, 05:58:47 AM. Impedance essentially can be viewed as frequency-dependent resistance. While resistance of a circuit is the instantaneous ratio between voltage and current, impedance of a circuit is the ratio between voltage and current for steady-state sinusoidal signals, which can vary with of frequency. As the later parts of this section will show, the voltage and current caused by applying a steady-state sinusoidal signal to any combination of resistors, capacitors, and inductors, are related by a constant factor and a phase shift. Therefore, impedance can be expressed by a complex constant using an extended version Ohm’s law.
By Alix Loane. Diode. Published at Monday, December 25th 2017, 02:07:04 AM. A simplified planar silicon diode is illustrated in Fig. 2.0.3. Using this process for silicon diodes produces two differently doped layers of silicon, which form a ‘PN junction’. Undoped or ‘intrinsic’ silicon has a lattice structure of atoms, each having four valence electrons, but P type silicon and N type silicon are doped by adding a relatively very small amount of material having either an atomic structure with three valence electrons (e.g. Boron or Aluminium) to make P type, or five valence electrons (e.g. Arsenic or Phosphorus) to make N type silicon. These doped versions of silicon are known as ‘extrinsic’ silicon. The P type silicon now has a shortage of valence electrons in its structure, which can also be considered to be a surplus of ‘holes’ or positive charge carriers, whereas the N type layer is doped with atoms having five electrons in its valence shell and therefore has a surplus of electrons which are negative charge carriers.
By Lydie Honorine. Circuit. Published at Monday, December 25th 2017, 02:06:30 AM. The concept of complex impedance introduces a unified representation for resistors, capacitors, and inductors, whereby a circuit’s frequency response from input to output can be determined using KVL and KCL, where each element is assigned the appropriate impedance. The key assumption to this point is that the input to the circuit must consist solely of DC and/or sinusoidal signals. Now, this analysis is be extended to include arbitrary input signals by using the mathematical techniques of Laplace transforms.
By Charlotte Myriam. Circuit. Published at Monday, December 25th 2017, 01:01:48 AM. The circuits and components of a double-layer PCB board are usually connected in one of two ways: either utilizing a through-hole or with the use of a surface-mount. A through-hole connection means that small wires, known as leads, are fed through the holes, with each end of the leads then soldered to the right component.
By Bertille Solange. Circuit. Published at Monday, December 25th 2017, 00:43:32 AM. Most electronic circuits can be represented as a system with an input and an output. The input signal is typically a voltage that is generated by a sensor or by another circuit. The output signal is also
By Sasha Sara. Circuit. Published at Monday, December 25th 2017, 00:40:11 AM. When a voltage is applied across a conductor, a current will begin to flow. The ratio between voltage and current is known as resistance. For most metallic conductors, the relationship between voltage and current is linear.
By Cyrielle Marjolaine. Motor. Published at Monday, December 25th 2017, 00:20:31 AM. To prevent this, the drive must be set to limit the motor current to its rated value. Because torque is proportional to current, motor torque is constant from zero speed to the corner speed. Above the corner speed, motor current is limited by the motor’s inductive reactance.
By Cyrielle Marjolaine. Circuit. Published at Sunday, December 24th 2017, 23:35:36 PM. Many different types of components and devices can be found in modern circuits, including resistors, capacitors, and inductors, semiconductor devices like diodes, transistors, and integrated circuits, transducers like microphones, light sensors and motions sensors, actuators like motors and solenoids, and various other devices like heating and lighting elements. Devices in a circuit are connected to one another by means of electrical conductors, or wires. These wires can move electric currents between various points in a circuit. Once a wire connects two or more devices, the wire and all attached device connectors are said to form a single circuit node or net. Any electrical activity on a given net is communicated to all devices attached to the net. Certain nets provide electric power to devices, and other nets carry information between devices. Nets that carry information are called signals, and signals transport information encoded as voltage levels around a circuit. Signal nets typically use smaller conductors, and transport very small currents. Nets that carry power are called supply rails (or just supplies) and supply rails transport electric power around a circuit. Power nets typically use much larger conductors that signal nets, because they must transport larger currents.
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