By Madeleine Catherine. Circuit. Publised at Saturday, August 05th 2017, 15:56:27 PM. A simple low-pass filter circuit, which allows low frequency signals to pass through the circuit while attenuating high-frequency signals, can be made using a resistor and capacitor in series.The transfer function of this filter can be determined by analyzing the circuit as a voltage divider,
By Charlotte Myriam. Diode. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 14:27:42 PM. When the polarity of the battery is such that electrons are allowed to flow through the diode, the diode is said to be forward-biased. Conversely, when the battery is “backward” and the diode blocks current, the diode is said to be reverse-biased. A diode may be thought of as like a switch: “closed” when forward-biased and “open” when reverse-biased.
By Jessica Mireille. Diagram. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 14:23:35 PM. Circuit components are manufactured with exposed metal pins (or leads) that are used to fasten them to the PCB both mechanically (so they will not fall off) and electrically (so current can pass between them). The soldering process, which provides a strong mechanical bond and a very good electrical connection, is used to fasten components to the PCB. During soldering, component leads are inserted through the holes in the PCB, and then the component leads and the through-hole plating metal are heated to above the melting point of the solder (about 500 to 700 degrees F). Solder (a metallic compound) is then melted and allowed to flow in and around the component lead and pad. The solder quickly cools to form a strong bond between the component and the PCB. The process of associating components with reference designators, loading them into their respective holes, and then soldering them in place comprises the PCB assembly process.
By Alix Loane. Diagram. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 13:58:36 PM. The unloaded PCB appears green because thin sheets of green plastic have been applied to both sides (otherwise the PCB would appear pale yellow). Called solder masks, these sheets cover all exposed metal other than the component pads and holes so that errant solder can not inadvertently short (or electrically connect) the printed wires. All metal surfaces other than the exposed pads and holes (i.e., the wires) are underneath the solder mask. Not infrequently, blue or even red solder masks are used.
By Alix Loane. Circuit. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 13:48:36 PM. If the components are connected in a parallel format they would be termed to be a parallel series. In this sort of a connection all the components would receive the same voltage, while the current would be divided amongst the components.
By Jessica Mireille. Diode. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 13:27:35 PM. A simplified planar silicon diode is illustrated in Fig. 2.0.3. Using this process for silicon diodes produces two differently doped layers of silicon, which form a ‘PN junction’. Undoped or ‘intrinsic’ silicon has a lattice structure of atoms, each having four valence electrons, but P type silicon and N type silicon are doped by adding a relatively very small amount of material having either an atomic structure with three valence electrons (e.g. Boron or Aluminium) to make P type, or five valence electrons (e.g. Arsenic or Phosphorus) to make N type silicon. These doped versions of silicon are known as ‘extrinsic’ silicon. The P type silicon now has a shortage of valence electrons in its structure, which can also be considered to be a surplus of ‘holes’ or positive charge carriers, whereas the N type layer is doped with atoms having five electrons in its valence shell and therefore has a surplus of electrons which are negative charge carriers.
By Lydie Honorine. Power. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 13:24:59 PM. The ground pin current in an LDO regulator is approximately equal to the load current divided by the gain of the single PNP transistor. Consequently, the ground pin current of an LDO is the highest of the three types.
By Madeleine Catherine. Amplifier. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 13:03:24 PM. We still have three separate grounds. At the input jack ground I connect a single wire from the power supply ground. I like to use something with low impedance to do this, often silver wire. Also at the input jack ground I attach a single wire from the active circuitry ground also with a low impedance wire. In this arrangement, neither ground is contaminated with voltages from the other. An obvious question now is that if you provide power to something in the active portion of the circuit, will not the current end up in the signal ground. The short answer is yes. It is also unavoidable and generally rather small in magnitude and normally does not cause problems. An exception is in power output stages. The large amount of current involved can cause noise in the signal ground so I ground them separately to the input jack ground. Could you run separate ground wires from each place in the active circuitry that puts current into the ground path? Certainly, and it would be a type of "star" ground system. I find generally it unnecessary. I can achieve signal to noise ratios of -90 dBV in high gain circuits without going to that method.
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