By Madeleine Catherine. Circuit. Publised at Sunday, December 17th 2017, 05:58:47 AM. Electric circuits use electric power to perform some function, like energize a heating or lighting element, turn a motor, or create an electromagnetic filed. Electronic circuits differ from electric circuits in that they use devices that can themselves be controlled by other electric signals. Restated, electronic circuits are built from devices that use electricity to control electricity. Most electronic circuits use signals that are within 5 to 10 volts of ground; most circuits built within the past several years use signals that are within 3 to 5 volts from ground. Some electronic circuits represent information encoded as continuous voltage levels that can wander between the high and low voltage supply rails – these are called analog circuits. As an example, a sound pressure level transducer (i.e. a microphone) might drive a signal between 0V and 3.3V in direct proportion to the detected sound pressure level. In this case, the voltage signal output from the microphone is said to be an analog ifthe sound pressure wave itself. Other circuits use only two distinct voltage levels to represent information. Most often, these two voltage levels use the same voltages supplied by the power rails. In these circuits, called digital circuits, all information must be represented as binary numbers, with a signal at 0V (or ground) representing one kind of information, and a signal at 3.3V (or whatever the upper voltage supply rail provides) representing the other kind of information. In this series of modules, we will confine our discussions to digital circuits.
By Madeleine Catherine. Circuit. Publised at Tuesday, August 29th 2017, 06:39:51 AM. Electronic signals are represented either by voltage or current. The timedependent characteristics of voltage or current signals can take a number of forms including DC, sinusoidal (also known as AC), square wave, linear ramps, and pulsewidth modulated signals. Sinusoidal signals are perhaps the most important signal forms since once the circuit response to sinusoidal signals are known, the result can be generalized to predict how the circuit will respond to a much greater variety of signals using the mathematical tools of Fourier and Laplace transforms.
By Sasha Sara. Circuit. Published at Saturday, December 16th 2017, 01:33:00 AM. Voltage is measured in units of Joules per Coulomb, known as a Volt (V). It is important to remember that voltage is not an absolute quantity, rather, it is always considered as a relative value between two points. In an electronic circuit, the electromagnetic problem of voltages at arbitrary points in space is typically simplified to voltages between nodes of circuit components such as resistors, capacitors, and transistors
By Madeleine Catherine. Circuit. Published at Friday, December 15th 2017, 22:55:29 PM. The circuits and components of a double-layer PCB board are usually connected in one of two ways: either utilizing a through-hole or with the use of a surface-mount. A through-hole connection means that small wires, known as leads, are fed through the holes, with each end of the leads then soldered to the right component.
By Bertille Solange. Diode. Published at Friday, December 15th 2017, 19:21:36 PM. A diode is a specialized electronic component with two electrodes called the anode and the cathode. Most diodes are made with semiconductor materials such as silicon, germanium, or selenium. Some diodes are comprised of metal electrodes in a chamber evacuated or filled with a pure elemental gas at low pressure. Diodes can be used as rectifiers, signal limiters, voltage regulators, switches, signal modulators, signal mixers, signal demodulators, and oscillators.
By Sasha Sara. Diagram. Published at Thursday, December 14th 2017, 14:19:51 PM. A digital circuit requires a power supply to provide a constant and stable source of electric power to all devices. As discussed above, electric power is derived from the basic electrical forces that charged particles (e.g., protons and electrons) exert on one another – namely, electrons are repelled by other electrons, and attracted to more electrically positive areas where there are relatively fewer electrons. The vast majority of charged particles are found in ordinary matter bound in electrically neutral atomic structures (that is, most particles are found in structures that have an equal number of positive and negative particles). Some electrically neutral conducting materials (like metals) contain electrons that are not so tightly bound to their host atoms. If a voltage source is applied to these materials, the lightly bound electrons will move away from the concentrated source of electrons on the negative side of the supply towards the electrically positive side of the supply. A “power supply” in a digital circuit provides a local, contained imbalance of electrons that provides a voltage source that can do useful work, such as transmitting information through a conductor from one device to another. A digital circuit allows a controlled flow of electrons from of the negative to positive side of the power supply, but only via the paths designed into the circuit. As electrons flow to and from the devices in a given circuit, they can change device properties in useful ways.
By Alix Loane. Circuit. Published at Thursday, December 07th 2017, 12:22:34 PM. Voltage is measured in units of Joules per Coulomb, known as a Volt (V). It is important to remember that voltage is not an absolute quantity, rather, it is always considered as a relative value between two points. In an electronic circuit, the electromagnetic problem of voltages at arbitrary points in space is typically simplified to voltages between nodes of circuit components such as resistors, capacitors, and transistors
By Alix Loane. Diode. Published at Tuesday, December 05th 2017, 12:19:51 PM. The fundamental property of a diode is its tendency to conduct electric current in only one direction. When the cathode is negatively charged relative to the anode at a voltage greater than a certain minimum called forward breakover, then current flows through the diode. If the cathode is positive with respect to the anode, is at the same voltage as the anode, or is negative by an amount less than the forward breakover voltage, then the diode does not conduct current. This is a simplistic view, but is true for diodes operating as rectifiers, switches, and limiters. The forward breakover voltage is approximately six tenths of a volt (0.6 V) for silicon devices, 0.3 V for germanium devices, and 1 V for selenium devices.
By Bertille Solange. Diagram. Published at Monday, December 04th 2017, 11:38:56 AM. A capacitor is a two-terminal device that can store electric energy in the form of charged particles. You can think of a capacitor as a reservoir of charge that takes time to fill or empty. The voltage across a capacitor is proportional to the amount of charge it is storing – the more charge added to a capacitor of a given size, the larger the voltage across the capacitor. It is not possible to instantaneously move charge to or from a capacitor, so it is not possible to instantaneously change the voltage across a capacitor. It is this property that makes capacitors useful on Digilent boards and in many other applications.
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