By Madeleine Catherine. Circuit. Publised at Saturday, August 05th 2017, 15:56:27 PM. Electronic signals are represented either by voltage or current. The timedependent characteristics of voltage or current signals can take a number of forms including DC, sinusoidal (also known as AC), square wave, linear ramps, and pulsewidth modulated signals. Sinusoidal signals are perhaps the most important signal forms since once the circuit response to sinusoidal signals are known, the result can be generalized to predict how the circuit will respond to a much greater variety of signals using the mathematical tools of Fourier and Laplace transforms.
By Lydie Honorine. Circuit. Published at Monday, December 25th 2017, 17:00:36 PM. Electric circuits use electric power to perform some function, like energize a heating or lighting element, turn a motor, or create an electromagnetic filed. Electronic circuits differ from electric circuits in that they use devices that can themselves be controlled by other electric signals. Restated, electronic circuits are built from devices that use electricity to control electricity. Most electronic circuits use signals that are within 5 to 10 volts of ground; most circuits built within the past several years use signals that are within 3 to 5 volts from ground. Some electronic circuits represent information encoded as continuous voltage levels that can wander between the high and low voltage supply rails – these are called analog circuits. As an example, a sound pressure level transducer (i.e. a microphone) might drive a signal between 0V and 3.3V in direct proportion to the detected sound pressure level. In this case, the voltage signal output from the microphone is said to be an analog ifthe sound pressure wave itself. Other circuits use only two distinct voltage levels to represent information. Most often, these two voltage levels use the same voltages supplied by the power rails. In these circuits, called digital circuits, all information must be represented as binary numbers, with a signal at 0V (or ground) representing one kind of information, and a signal at 3.3V (or whatever the upper voltage supply rail provides) representing the other kind of information. In this series of modules, we will confine our discussions to digital circuits.
By Jessica Mireille. Diagram. Published at Monday, December 25th 2017, 16:13:17 PM. Circuits often require inputs that come directly from users (as opposed to inputs that come from other devices). User-input devices can take many forms, among them keyboards (as on a PC), buttons (as on a calculator or telephone), rotary dials, switches and levers, etc. Digilent boards include several input devices, typically including push buttons and slide-switches. Since digital circuits operate with two voltage levels (LHV or Vdd, and LLV or GND), input devices like buttons and switches should be able to produce both of these voltages based on some user action.
By Alix Loane. Circuit. Published at Monday, December 25th 2017, 15:15:32 PM. When multiple components are connected in series, each component must carry the same current. When multiple components are connected in parallel, the total current is the sum of the currents flowing through each individual component. These statements are generalized as Kirchoff’s Current Law (KCL), which states that the sum of currents entering and exiting a node must be zero.
By Lydie Honorine. Circuit. Published at Monday, December 25th 2017, 14:51:40 PM. When a voltage is applied across a conductor, a current will begin to flow. The ratio between voltage and current is known as resistance. For most metallic conductors, the relationship between voltage and current is linear.
By Charlotte Myriam. Circuit. Published at Monday, December 25th 2017, 14:48:28 PM. The concept of complex impedance introduces a unified representation for resistors, capacitors, and inductors, whereby a circuit’s frequency response from input to output can be determined using KVL and KCL, where each element is assigned the appropriate impedance. The key assumption to this point is that the input to the circuit must consist solely of DC and/or sinusoidal signals. Now, this analysis is be extended to include arbitrary input signals by using the mathematical techniques of Laplace transforms.
By Cyrielle Marjolaine. Motor. Published at Monday, December 25th 2017, 14:35:01 PM. Eddy current and hysteresis heating are collectively called iron losses. The former induces currents in the iron of the motor while the latter is caused by the re-alignment of the magnetic domains in the iron. You can think of this as “friction heating” as the magnetic dipoles in the iron switch back and forth. Either way, both cause the bulk heating of the motor. Iron losses are a function of AC current and therefore the power supply voltage.
By Alix Loane. Circuit. Published at Monday, December 25th 2017, 14:11:41 PM. Ohm’s law states that the current through a conductor between two points is directly proportional to the potential difference across those two points. It means that more the resistance lesser current would flow. I=V/R This would apply to any component of a circuit. For example conductors would increase the current flow and the inductors would decrease it.
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