By Charlotte Myriam. Circuit. Publised at Tuesday, July 04th 2017, 03:38:49 AM. Double-layer or double-sided PCBs have a base material with a thin layer of conductive metal, like copper, applied to both sides of the board. Holes drilled through the board allow circuits on one side of the board to connect to circuits on the other.
By Lydie Honorine. Diagram. Published at Tuesday, December 19th 2017, 12:45:48 PM. An electronic circuit is a circular path of conductors by which electric current can flow. A closed circuit is like a circle because it starts and ends at the same point forming a complete loop. Furthermore, a closed circuit allows electricity to flow from the (+) power to the (-) ground uninterrupted.
By Cyrielle Marjolaine. Power. Published at Tuesday, December 19th 2017, 11:49:21 AM. In series regulation the control element is placed between the unregulated voltage source and the load and the current through the element is controlled so that the voltage across the load is held constant. A feedback control system is used where the difference between the output voltage and a reference voltage is applied to a high gain amplifier that drives the current control element such as to maintain the setpoint output voltage. The majority of voltage regulators are of the series type.
By Bertille Solange. Diagram. Published at Tuesday, December 19th 2017, 02:14:46 AM. Circuits often require output devices to communicate their state to an user. Examples of electronic output devices include computer monitors, LCD alphanumeric panels (as on a calculator), small lamps or light-emitting diodes (LED), etc. Digilent boards include different output devices, but all of them include some number of individual LED, and seven-segment LED displays that can display the digits 0-9 in each digit position (each segment in the seven-segment display contains a single LED). LED are two-terminal semiconductor devices that conduct current in only one direction (from the anode to the cathode). The small LED chips are secured inside a plastic housing, and they emit light at a givenfrequency (RED, YELLOW, etc.) when a small electric current (typically 10mA to 25mA) flows through them.
By Jessica Mireille. Circuit. Published at Tuesday, December 19th 2017, 02:08:03 AM. Voltage and current sources can be independent or dependent. Their respective circuit symbols. Independent sources are usually shown as a circle while dependent sources are usually shown as a diamond-shape. Independent sources can have a DC output or a functional output; some examples are a sine wave, square wave, impulse, and linear ramp. Dependent sources can be used to implement a voltage or current which is a function of some other voltage or current in the circuit. Dependent sources are often used to model active circuits that are used for signal amplification.
By Sasha Sara. Amplifier. Published at Tuesday, December 19th 2017, 02:01:05 AM. Badly designed amplifiers especially the Class “A” types may also require larger power transistors, more expensive heat sinks, cooling fans, or even an increase in the size of the power supply required to deliver the extra power required by the amplifier. Power converted into heat from transistors, resistors or any other component for that matter, makes any electronic circuit inefficient and will result in the premature failure of the device.
By Madeleine Catherine. Diagram. Published at Tuesday, December 19th 2017, 01:28:27 AM. On all but the simplest PCBs, wires must be printed on more than one surface of fiberglass to allow for all the required component interconnections. Each surface containing printed wires is called a layer. In a relatively simple PCB that requires only two layers, only one piece of fiberglass is required since wires can be printed on both sides. In a more complex PCB where several layers are required, individual circuit boards are manufactured separately and then laminated together to form one multi-layer circuit board. To connect wires on two or more layers, small holes called vias are drilled through the wires and fiberglass board at the point where the wires on the different layers cross. The interior surface of these holes is coated with metal so that electric current can flow through the vias. Most Digilent boards are simple four or six layer boards; some more complex computer circuit boards have more than 20 layers.
By Madeleine Catherine. Diode. Published at Tuesday, December 19th 2017, 01:03:57 AM. When an analog signal passes through a diode operating at or near its forward breakover point, the signal waveform is distorted. This nonlinearity allows for modulation, demodulation, and signal mixing. In addition, signals are generated at harmonics, or integral multiples of the input frequency. Some diodes also have a characteristic that is imprecisely termed negative resistance. Diodes of this type, with the application of a voltage at the correct level and the polarity, generate analog signals at microwave radio frequencies.
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