By Charlotte Myriam. Circuit. Publised at Tuesday, July 04th 2017, 03:38:49 AM. For DC signals, the linearity of the system implies that H is independent of Vin. For dynamic signals, the transfer function cannot in general be described simply. However, if the input is a sinusoidal signal then the output must also be a sinusoidal signal with the same frequency but possibly a different amplitude and phase. In other words, a linear system can only modify the amplitude and phase of a sinusoidal input.
By Cyrielle Marjolaine. Diagram. Published at Sunday, January 07th 2018, 06:44:35 AM. The unloaded PCB appears green because thin sheets of green plastic have been applied to both sides (otherwise the PCB would appear pale yellow). Called solder masks, these sheets cover all exposed metal other than the component pads and holes so that errant solder can not inadvertently short (or electrically connect) the printed wires. All metal surfaces other than the exposed pads and holes (i.e., the wires) are underneath the solder mask. Not infrequently, blue or even red solder masks are used.
By Cyrielle Marjolaine. Motor. Published at Sunday, January 07th 2018, 04:48:21 AM. Electrically, a real motor differs from an ideal one primarily by having a non-zero winding resistance. Also, the iron in the motor is subject to magnetic saturation, as well as having eddy current and hysteresis losses. Magnetic saturation sets a limit on current to torque proportionally while eddy current and hysteresis (iron losses) along with winding resistance (copper losses) cause motor heating.
By Alix Loane. Diagram. Published at Sunday, January 07th 2018, 03:33:49 AM. A schematic shows connections in a circuit in a way that is clear and standardized. It is a way of communicating to other engineers exactly what components are involved in a circuit as well as how they are connected. A good schematic will show component names and values, and provide labels for sections or components to help communicate the intended purpose. Note how connections on wires (or "nets") are shown using dots and non-connections are shown without a dot.
By Alix Loane. Car Wiring. Published at Saturday, January 06th 2018, 22:49:51 PM. It just takes a little more time to duplicate your wiring into a spare wiring harness. Make two or three if you like, the parts are very inexpensive. Also keep spare switches on hand in your race trailer so that if one breaks or fails to function, you’ll be able to replace it quickly.
By Sasha Sara. Diagram. Published at Saturday, January 06th 2018, 22:23:44 PM. In contrast to digital circuits, analog circuits use signals whose voltage levels are not constrained to two distinct levels, but instead can assume any value between Vdd and GND. Many input devices, particularly those using electronic sensors (e.g., microphones, cameras, thermometers, pressure sensors, motion and proximity detectors, etc.) produce analog voltages at their outputs. In modern electronic devices, it is likely that such signals will be converted to digital signals before they are used within the device. For example, a digital voice-memo recording device uses an analog microphone circuit to convert sound pressure waves into voltage waves on an internal circuit node. A special circuit called an analog-to-digital converter, or ADC, converts that analog voltage to a binary number that can be represented as a bus in a digital circuit. An ADC functions by taking samples of the input analog signal, measuring the magnitude of the input voltage signal (usually with reference to GND), and assigning a binary number to the measured magnitude. Once an analog signal has been converted to a binary number, a bus can carry that digital information around a circuit. In a similar manner, digital signals can be reconstituted into analog signals using a digital-to-analog converter. Thus, a binary number that represents a sample of an audio waveform can be converted to an analog signal that can, for example, drive a speaker.
By Valentine Sybille. Diagram. Published at Saturday, January 06th 2018, 19:46:56 PM. In a digital circuit, power supply voltage levels are constrained to two distinct values – “logic high voltage” (called LHV or Vdd) and “logic low voltage” (called LLV or GND). The GND node in any circuit is the universal reference voltage against which all other voltages are measured (in modern digital circuits, GND is typically the lowest voltage in the circuit). In a schematic, it is often difficult to show lines connecting all GND nodes; rather, any nodes labeled GND are assumed to be connected into the same node. Often, a downward pointing triangle symbol, is attached to a GND node in addition to (or instead of) the GND label. The Vdd node in a digital circuit is typically the highest voltage, and all nodes labeled Vdd are tied together into the same node. Vdd may be thought of as the “source” of positive charges in a circuit, and GND may be thought of as the “source” of negative charges in a circuit. In modern digital systems, Vdd and GND are separated by anywhere from 1 to 5 volts. Older or inexpensive circuits typically use 5 volts, while newer circuits use 1-3 volts.
By Alix Loane. Diagram. Published at Saturday, January 06th 2018, 18:33:29 PM. Starting to make sense? These are the basics and may even seem obvious or intuitive to you, such as the wires and if they are connected. Whenever you determine your specific field of electrical engineering, you may see more complex diagrams and symbols. You’ll learn also that different countries use different symbols. For example, of the two symbols for resistors above, the first one is used in the U.S., while the second is used in Europe. You will also learn about the various symbols used for switches, other power supplies, inductors, meters, lamps, LEDs, transistors, antennas, and much more.
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