By Lydie Honorine. Diagram. Publised at Monday, December 18th 2017, 16:26:21 PM. If there’s something on a schematic that just doesn’t make sense, try finding a datasheet for the most important component. Usually the component doing the most work on a circuit is an integrated circuit, like a microcontroller or sensor. These are usually the largest component, oft-located at the center of the schematic.
By Jessica Mireille. Diode. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 13:27:35 PM. Like check valves, diodes are essentially “pressure-” operated (voltage-operated) devices. The essential difference between forward-bias and reverse-bias is the polarity of the voltage dropped across the diode. Let’s take a closer look at the simple battery-diode-lamp circuit shown earlier, this time investigating voltage drops across the various components.
By Lydie Honorine. Power. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 13:24:59 PM. In shunt regulation a resistor is typically placed in series with the load and the unregulated voltage. The resistor is small enough so that the load could always receive somewhat more than the maximum current it would ever need. The shunt regulator is placed across the load and conducts excess current around the load such that the voltage across the load remains a constant as the load draws the actual current at any given time. A common shunt regulator is a Zener diode which is an example of an open loop system. Feedback control can also be used to drive the current through the control element (a transistor) across the load. Shunt regulators are generally only used for low power applications because they can be very inefficient. However, shunt regulators have an inherent fault current limiting feature and also can regulate even if the load is forcing current into the regulator rather than drawing current from it. Shunt regulators also have an interesting feature that the input current is constant – independent of load current (except if a load fault occurs – but that is a special case not in normal operation). Thus shunt regulators are very good at isolating a load with rapid and large current fluctuations.
By Madeleine Catherine. Amplifier. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 13:03:24 PM. The difference between the input and output signals is known as the Gain of the amplifier and is basically a measure of how much an amplifier “amplifies” the input signal. For example, if we have an input signal of 1 volt and an output of 50 volts, then the gain of the amplifier would be “50”. In other words, the input signal has been increased by a factor of 50. This increase is called Gain.
By Jessica Mireille. Power. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 11:44:41 AM. The purpose of a voltage regulator is to maintain a constant voltage across a load regardless of variations in the applied input voltage and variations in the load current. Two metrics, line regulation and load regulation, are used to quantify the performance of a voltage regulator.
By Madeleine Catherine. Circuit. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 10:11:25 AM. Double-layer or double-sided PCBs have a base material with a thin layer of conductive metal, like copper, applied to both sides of the board. Holes drilled through the board allow circuits on one side of the board to connect to circuits on the other.
By Valentine Sybille. Diagram. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 09:36:01 AM. Wiring diagrams use standard symbols for wiring devices, usually different from those used on schematic diagrams. The electrical symbols not only show where something is to be installed, but also what type of device is being installed. For example, a surface ceiling light is shown by one symbol, a recessed ceiling light has a different symbol, and a surface fluorescent light has another symbol. Each type of switch has a different symbol and so do the various outlets. There are symbols that show the location of smoke detectors, the doorbell chime, and thermostat. On large projects symbols may be numbered to show, for example, the panel board and circuit to which the device connects, and also to identify which of several types of fixture are to be installed at that location.
By Valentine Sybille. Power. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 09:34:55 AM. This hierarchy means that a linear regulator will normally try to operate in "constant voltage" mode, where the voltage error amplifier is regulating the output voltage to a fixed value. However, this assumes that both the load current and junction temperature are below their limit threshold values.
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