By Cyrielle Marjolaine. Circuit. Publised at Sunday, December 24th 2017, 23:35:36 PM. Electric circuits use electric power to perform some function, like energize a heating or lighting element, turn a motor, or create an electromagnetic filed. Electronic circuits differ from electric circuits in that they use devices that can themselves be controlled by other electric signals. Restated, electronic circuits are built from devices that use electricity to control electricity. Most electronic circuits use signals that are within 5 to 10 volts of ground; most circuits built within the past several years use signals that are within 3 to 5 volts from ground. Some electronic circuits represent information encoded as continuous voltage levels that can wander between the high and low voltage supply rails – these are called analog circuits. As an example, a sound pressure level transducer (i.e. a microphone) might drive a signal between 0V and 3.3V in direct proportion to the detected sound pressure level. In this case, the voltage signal output from the microphone is said to be an analog ifthe sound pressure wave itself. Other circuits use only two distinct voltage levels to represent information. Most often, these two voltage levels use the same voltages supplied by the power rails. In these circuits, called digital circuits, all information must be represented as binary numbers, with a signal at 0V (or ground) representing one kind of information, and a signal at 3.3V (or whatever the upper voltage supply rail provides) representing the other kind of information. In this series of modules, we will confine our discussions to digital circuits.
By Lydie Honorine. Circuit. Publised at Monday, December 25th 2017, 17:00:36 PM. A collection of electronic components that have been assembled and interconnected to perform a given function is commonly referred to as a circuit. The word circuit derives from the fact that electric power must flow from the positive terminal of a power source through one or more electronic devices and back to the negative terminal of a power source, thereby forming a circuit. If the connections between an electronic device and either the positive or negative terminals of a power supply are interrupted, the circuit will be broken and the device will not function.
By Jessica Mireille. Power. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 11:44:41 AM. A variation of the Standard regulator is the quasi-LDO, which uses an NPN and PNP transistor as the pass device. The dropout voltage for a quasi-LDO delivering rated current is usually specified at about 1.5V(max). The actual dropout voltage is temperature and load current dependent, but could never be expected to go lower than about 0.9V (25°C) at even the lightest load. The dropout voltage for the quasi-LDO is higher than the LDO, but lower than the Standard regulator.
By Madeleine Catherine. Circuit. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 10:11:25 AM. Double-layer or double-sided PCBs have a base material with a thin layer of conductive metal, like copper, applied to both sides of the board. Holes drilled through the board allow circuits on one side of the board to connect to circuits on the other.
By Valentine Sybille. Diagram. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 09:36:01 AM. Production circuit boards typically start out as thin sheets of fiberglass (about 1mm thick) that are completely covered on both sides with very thin sheets of metal (typically copper). A "standard" circuit board might use a 1 ounce copper process, which means that one ounce of copper is evenly spread across 1 square foot of circuit board. During the manufacturing process, wire patterns are "printed" onto the copper surfaces using a compound that resists etching (hence the name Printed Circuit Board or PCB). The boards are subjected to a chemical etching process that removes all exposed copper. The remaining, un-etched copperforms wires that will interconnect the circuit board components, and small pads that define the regions where component leads will be attached.
By Valentine Sybille. Power. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 09:34:55 AM. In thermal limiting, the output voltage drops and the load current can be reduced to any value (including zero). No performance characteristic specifications apply when a part is operating in thermal shutdown mode.
By Jessica Mireille. Diagram. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 09:20:41 AM. In a digital circuit, power supply voltage levels are constrained to two distinct values – “logic high voltage” (called LHV or Vdd) and “logic low voltage” (called LLV or GND). The GND node in any circuit is the universal reference voltage against which all other voltages are measured (in modern digital circuits, GND is typically the lowest voltage in the circuit). In a schematic, it is often difficult to show lines connecting all GND nodes; rather, any nodes labeled GND are assumed to be connected into the same node. Often, a downward pointing triangle symbol, is attached to a GND node in addition to (or instead of) the GND label. The Vdd node in a digital circuit is typically the highest voltage, and all nodes labeled Vdd are tied together into the same node. Vdd may be thought of as the “source” of positive charges in a circuit, and GND may be thought of as the “source” of negative charges in a circuit. In modern digital systems, Vdd and GND are separated by anywhere from 1 to 5 volts. Older or inexpensive circuits typically use 5 volts, while newer circuits use 1-3 volts.
By Alix Loane. Circuit. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 09:18:43 AM. Electrical components such as resistors, capacitors, inductors, and transistors can all be represented by equivalent mechanical devices that support this analogy.
By Valentine Sybille. Motor. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 09:08:58 AM. In the previous section it was shown that motor torque varies inversely with speed. This then is the motor’s natural speed-torque curve. Below a certain speed, called the corner speed, current would rise above the motor’s rated current, ultimately to destructive levels as the motor’s speed is reduced further.
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