By Alix Loane. Diode. Publised at Tuesday, December 05th 2017, 12:19:51 PM. As the voltage applied between anode and cathode increases, forward current increases slowly at first, as charge carriers begin to cross the depletion layer then increasing rapidly in an approximately exponential manner. The resistance of the diode, when ‘turned on’ or conducting in a ‘forward biased’ mode is therefore not zero ohms, but is very low. Because forward conduction increases after the depletion potential is overcome in an approximately following exponential curve, forward resistance (V/I) varies slightly depending on the voltage applied.
By Lydie Honorine. Circuit. Published at Wednesday, December 20th 2017, 16:54:45 PM. Most electronic circuits can be represented as a system with an input and an output. The input signal is typically a voltage that is generated by a sensor or by another circuit. The output signal is also
By Valentine Sybille. Diagram. Published at Wednesday, December 20th 2017, 16:13:14 PM. As discussed earlier, a digital circuit represents and manipulates information encoded as electric signals that can assume one of two voltages – logic-high voltage (or Vdd) and logic-low voltage (or GND). A digital circuit requires a power supply that can produce these two voltages, and these same supply voltages are also used to encode information in the form of two-state, or binary signals. Thus,if a given circuit node is at Vdd, then that signal is said to carry a logic ‘1’; if the node is at GND, then the node carries a logic ‘0’. The components in digital circuits are simple on/off switches that can pass logic ‘1’ and logic ‘0’ signals from one circuit node to another. Most typically, these switches are arranged to combine input signals to produce an output signal according to basic logic relationships. For example, one well-known logic circuit is an AND gate that combines two input signals to produce an output that is the logic AND of the inputs (i.e., if both input1 and input2 are a ‘1’, then the output is a ‘1’).
By Jessica Mireille. Circuit. Published at Wednesday, December 20th 2017, 15:20:13 PM. Electric current is the rate at which electric charge flows through a given area. Current is measured in the unit of Coulombs per second, which is known as an ampere (A). In an electronic circuit, the electromagnetic problem of currents is typically simplified as a current flowing through particular circuit components.
By Bertille Solange. Power. Published at Wednesday, December 20th 2017, 14:46:18 PM. The control circuitry must monitor (sense) the output voltage, and adjust the current source (as required by the load) to hold the output voltage at the desired value. The design limit of the current source defines the maximum load current the regulator can source and still maintain regulation.
By Madeleine Catherine. Diagram. Published at Wednesday, December 20th 2017, 14:45:40 PM. A digital circuit requires a power supply to provide a constant and stable source of electric power to all devices. As discussed above, electric power is derived from the basic electrical forces that charged particles (e.g., protons and electrons) exert on one another – namely, electrons are repelled by other electrons, and attracted to more electrically positive areas where there are relatively fewer electrons. The vast majority of charged particles are found in ordinary matter bound in electrically neutral atomic structures (that is, most particles are found in structures that have an equal number of positive and negative particles). Some electrically neutral conducting materials (like metals) contain electrons that are not so tightly bound to their host atoms. If a voltage source is applied to these materials, the lightly bound electrons will move away from the concentrated source of electrons on the negative side of the supply towards the electrically positive side of the supply. A “power supply” in a digital circuit provides a local, contained imbalance of electrons that provides a voltage source that can do useful work, such as transmitting information through a conductor from one device to another. A digital circuit allows a controlled flow of electrons from of the negative to positive side of the power supply, but only via the paths designed into the circuit. As electrons flow to and from the devices in a given circuit, they can change device properties in useful ways.
By Lydie Honorine. Diagram. Published at Wednesday, December 20th 2017, 14:40:46 PM. Circuits often require inputs that come directly from users (as opposed to inputs that come from other devices). User-input devices can take many forms, among them keyboards (as on a PC), buttons (as on a calculator or telephone), rotary dials, switches and levers, etc. Digilent boards include several input devices, typically including push buttons and slide-switches. Since digital circuits operate with two voltage levels (LHV or Vdd, and LLV or GND), input devices like buttons and switches should be able to produce both of these voltages based on some user action.
By Bertille Solange. Amplifier. Published at Wednesday, December 20th 2017, 14:39:29 PM. There are many forms of electronic circuits classed as amplifiers, from Operational Amplifiers and Small Signal Amplifiers up to Large Signal and Power Amplifiers. The classification of an amplifier depends upon the size of the signal, large or small, its physical configuration and how it processes the input signal, that is the relationship between input signal and current flowing in the load.
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