By Madeleine Catherine. Diagram. Publised at Tuesday, December 19th 2017, 13:03:29 PM. Production circuit boards typically start out as thin sheets of fiberglass (about 1mm thick) that are completely covered on both sides with very thin sheets of metal (typically copper). A "standard" circuit board might use a 1 ounce copper process, which means that one ounce of copper is evenly spread across 1 square foot of circuit board. During the manufacturing process, wire patterns are "printed" onto the copper surfaces using a compound that resists etching (hence the name Printed Circuit Board or PCB). The boards are subjected to a chemical etching process that removes all exposed copper. The remaining, un-etched copperforms wires that will interconnect the circuit board components, and small pads that define the regions where component leads will be attached.
By Cyrielle Marjolaine. Diagram. Published at Wednesday, January 10th 2018, 00:54:54 AM. In a digital circuit, power supply voltage levels are constrained to two distinct values – “logic high voltage” (called LHV or Vdd) and “logic low voltage” (called LLV or GND). The GND node in any circuit is the universal reference voltage against which all other voltages are measured (in modern digital circuits, GND is typically the lowest voltage in the circuit). In a schematic, it is often difficult to show lines connecting all GND nodes; rather, any nodes labeled GND are assumed to be connected into the same node. Often, a downward pointing triangle symbol, is attached to a GND node in addition to (or instead of) the GND label. The Vdd node in a digital circuit is typically the highest voltage, and all nodes labeled Vdd are tied together into the same node. Vdd may be thought of as the “source” of positive charges in a circuit, and GND may be thought of as the “source” of negative charges in a circuit. In modern digital systems, Vdd and GND are separated by anywhere from 1 to 5 volts. Older or inexpensive circuits typically use 5 volts, while newer circuits use 1-3 volts.
By Valentine Sybille. Car Wiring. Published at Wednesday, January 10th 2018, 00:32:40 AM. The electrical system of a car is a closed circuit with an independent power source the battery. It operates on a small fraction of the power of a household circuit. Current flows along a single cable from the battery to the component being powered, and back to the battery through the cars metal body. The body is connected to the earth terminal of the battery by a thick cable.
By Cyrielle Marjolaine. Motor. Published at Wednesday, January 10th 2018, 00:18:44 AM. The choice of a power supply is determined by voltage, current, and power supply type (i.e. switching versus linear, regulated versus unregulated, etc.). By far the most problematic and complicated factor is voltage, which will be discussed last.
By Cyrielle Marjolaine. Motor. Published at Tuesday, January 09th 2018, 22:58:18 PM. At this point it is important to introduce the concept of overdrive ration. This is the ration between the power supply voltage and the motor’s rated voltage. An empirically derived maximum is 25:1, meaning the power supply voltage should never exceed 25 times the motor’s rated voltage or 32 times the square root of motor inductance. Below is a graph of measured iron losses for a 4A, 3V motor. Notice in Figure 16 how the iron losses range from insignificant to being the major cause of heating in the motor compared to a constant 12W copper loss (4A times 3V).
By Bertille Solange. Circuit. Published at Tuesday, January 09th 2018, 21:42:21 PM. Many different types of components and devices can be found in modern circuits, including resistors, capacitors, and inductors, semiconductor devices like diodes, transistors, and integrated circuits, transducers like microphones, light sensors and motions sensors, actuators like motors and solenoids, and various other devices like heating and lighting elements. Devices in a circuit are connected to one another by means of electrical conductors, or wires. These wires can move electric currents between various points in a circuit. Once a wire connects two or more devices, the wire and all attached device connectors are said to form a single circuit node or net. Any electrical activity on a given net is communicated to all devices attached to the net. Certain nets provide electric power to devices, and other nets carry information between devices. Nets that carry information are called signals, and signals transport information encoded as voltage levels around a circuit. Signal nets typically use smaller conductors, and transport very small currents. Nets that carry power are called supply rails (or just supplies) and supply rails transport electric power around a circuit. Power nets typically use much larger conductors that signal nets, because they must transport larger currents.
By Jessica Mireille. Car Wiring. Published at Tuesday, January 09th 2018, 21:35:41 PM. In the unfortunate case of a fire, and it does happen, you can remove all of the old wiring and what they were attached to, and reinstall all new switches, gauges, ignition box, and so on, and the wiring will be ready to install quickly and easily.
By Charlotte Myriam. Car Wiring. Published at Tuesday, January 09th 2018, 20:33:26 PM. When you begin the rewiring of your car, choose good material, as in new wire and quality terminals. Use a gauge of wire sufficient to carry the amperage load for the work it will be doing. Always use closed-end terminals, not the U type.
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