By Sasha Sara. Motor. Publised at Monday, December 18th 2017, 08:03:25 AM. In the previous section it was shown that motor torque varies inversely with speed. This then is the motor’s natural speed-torque curve. Below a certain speed, called the corner speed, current would rise above the motor’s rated current, ultimately to destructive levels as the motor’s speed is reduced further.
By Madeleine Catherine. Circuit. Published at Saturday, December 23rd 2017, 02:15:49 AM. Since single-layer/single-sided PCBs only have their various circuits and electrical components soldered onto one side, they are easy to design and manufacture. This popularity means that they can be purchased at a low-cost, especially for high-volume orders. The low-cost, high volume model means they are commonly used for a variety of applications, including calculators, cameras, radio and stereo equipment, solid state drives, printers and power supplies.
By Cyrielle Marjolaine. Circuit. Published at Saturday, December 23rd 2017, 01:06:49 AM. Electronic signals are represented either by voltage or current. The timedependent characteristics of voltage or current signals can take a number of forms including DC, sinusoidal (also known as AC), square wave, linear ramps, and pulsewidth modulated signals. Sinusoidal signals are perhaps the most important signal forms since once the circuit response to sinusoidal signals are known, the result can be generalized to predict how the circuit will respond to a much greater variety of signals using the mathematical tools of Fourier and Laplace transforms.
By Alix Loane. Diagram. Published at Saturday, December 23rd 2017, 00:38:09 AM. In contrast to digital circuits, analog circuits use signals whose voltage levels are not constrained to two distinct levels, but instead can assume any value between Vdd and GND. Many input devices, particularly those using electronic sensors (e.g., microphones, cameras, thermometers, pressure sensors, motion and proximity detectors, etc.) produce analog voltages at their outputs. In modern electronic devices, it is likely that such signals will be converted to digital signals before they are used within the device. For example, a digital voice-memo recording device uses an analog microphone circuit to convert sound pressure waves into voltage waves on an internal circuit node. A special circuit called an analog-to-digital converter, or ADC, converts that analog voltage to a binary number that can be represented as a bus in a digital circuit. An ADC functions by taking samples of the input analog signal, measuring the magnitude of the input voltage signal (usually with reference to GND), and assigning a binary number to the measured magnitude. Once an analog signal has been converted to a binary number, a bus can carry that digital information around a circuit. In a similar manner, digital signals can be reconstituted into analog signals using a digital-to-analog converter. Thus, a binary number that represents a sample of an audio waveform can be converted to an analog signal that can, for example, drive a speaker.
By Sasha Sara. Diagram. Published at Saturday, December 23rd 2017, 00:21:25 AM. Knowing how to read circuits is a very useful skill that will help you out all the time. especially if you start messing around with building little electronics projects.
By Cyrielle Marjolaine. Circuit. Published at Saturday, December 23rd 2017, 00:11:04 AM. Voltage and current sources can be independent or dependent. Their respective circuit symbols. Independent sources are usually shown as a circle while dependent sources are usually shown as a diamond-shape. Independent sources can have a DC output or a functional output; some examples are a sine wave, square wave, impulse, and linear ramp. Dependent sources can be used to implement a voltage or current which is a function of some other voltage or current in the circuit. Dependent sources are often used to model active circuits that are used for signal amplification.
By Lydie Honorine. Circuit. Published at Friday, December 22nd 2017, 23:34:06 PM. Resistors, capacitors, and inductors are the fundamental components of electronic circuits. In fact, all electronic circuits can be equivalently represented by circuits of these three components together with voltage and current sources.
By Cyrielle Marjolaine. Motor. Published at Friday, December 22nd 2017, 23:06:28 PM. There is a special consideration if the power supply will be at or near the maximum voltage rating of the drive. If the motor will be rapidly decelerating a large inertial load from a high speed, care has to be taken to absorb the returned energy. The energy stored in the momentum of the load must be removed during deceleration and be safely dissipated. Because of its efficiency, the drive has no means of dissipating this energy so it returns it to the power supply. In effect, instead of drawing current from the power supply, the drive becomes a source of current itself. This current may charge the power supply capacitor to destructive voltage levels.
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