By Bertille Solange. Diagram. Publised at Monday, December 18th 2017, 21:10:53 PM. Electronic components are often assembled and interconnected on a flat surface known as a circuit board. The several types of existing circuit boards may be divided into two broad categories: those intended for prototype or experimental circuits; and those intended for production and/or commercial sale. Circuit boards used for experimental work are often referred to as breadboards or protoboards. Breadboards allow engineers to construct circuits quickly, so that they can be studied and modified until an optimal design is discovered. In a typical breadboard use, components and wires are added to a circuit in an ad hoc manner as the design proceeds, with new data and new understanding dictating the course of the design. Since breadboard circuits exist only in the laboratory, no special consideration need be given to creating reliable or simple-to-manufacture circuits – the designer can focus exclusively on the circuits behavior. In contrast, circuit boards intended for production or commercial sale must have highly reliable wires and interconnects, permanent bonds to all components, and topographies amenable to mass production and thorough testing. And further, they must be made of a material that is reliable, low-cost, and easy to manufacture. A fiberglass substratewith copper wires (etched from laminated copper sheets) has been the PCB material of choice for the past several decades. The Digilent board is a simple example of such a board. Note that most often, production circuit board designs are finalized only after extensive breadboard phases. Components are permanently affixed to production boards using the soldering process.
By Valentine Sybille. Car Wiring. Published at Friday, December 29th 2017, 05:35:08 AM. Electricity flows from a battery in one direction only, and some components work only if the flow through them is in the correct direction. This acceptance of a one-way flow is called polarity. On most cars the negative () battery terminal is earthed and the positive (+) one feeds the electrical system.
By Alix Loane. Car Wiring. Published at Friday, December 29th 2017, 05:33:05 AM. There are many fuses, each protecting a small group of components, so that one blown fuse does not shut down the whole system. Many of the fuses are grouped together in a fuse box, but there may also be line fuses in the wiring.
By Charlotte Myriam. Car Wiring. Published at Friday, December 29th 2017, 05:02:19 AM. Apart from the main charging, starting and ignition circuits, there are other circuits that power lights, electric motors, the sensors and gauges of electrical instruments, heating elements, magnetically operated locks, the radio and so on. All Circuits are opened and closed either by switches or by relays - remote switches operated by electromagnets.
By Bertille Solange. Power. Published at Friday, December 29th 2017, 04:58:06 AM. The Low-dropout (LDO) regulator differs from the Standard regulator in that the pass device of the LDO is made up of only a single PNP transistor.
By Alix Loane. Motor. Published at Thursday, December 28th 2017, 16:31:25 PM. The result now is a two-part speed-torque curve which features constant torque from zero speed until it intersects the motor’s natural load line, called the corner speed, beyond which the motor is in the constant power region.
By Madeleine Catherine. Circuit. Published at Thursday, December 28th 2017, 09:59:36 AM. When multiple components are connected in parallel, the voltage drop is the same across all components. When multiple components are connected in series, the total voltage is the sum of the voltages across each component. These two statements can be generalized as Kirchoff’s Voltage Law (KVL), which states that the sum of voltages around any closed loop (e.g. starting at one node, and ending at the same node) is zero.
By Jessica Mireille. Circuit. Published at Thursday, December 28th 2017, 09:47:17 AM. Since single-layer/single-sided PCBs only have their various circuits and electrical components soldered onto one side, they are easy to design and manufacture. This popularity means that they can be purchased at a low-cost, especially for high-volume orders. The low-cost, high volume model means they are commonly used for a variety of applications, including calculators, cameras, radio and stereo equipment, solid state drives, printers and power supplies.
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