By Madeleine Catherine. Circuit. Publised at Sunday, October 01st 2017, 08:41:00 AM. Electric current is the rate at which electric charge flows through a given area. Current is measured in the unit of Coulombs per second, which is known as an ampere (A). In an electronic circuit, the electromagnetic problem of currents is typically simplified as a current flowing through particular circuit components.
By Bertille Solange. Circuit. Published at Monday, December 18th 2017, 21:05:34 PM. The circuits and components of a double-layer PCB board are usually connected in one of two ways: either utilizing a through-hole or with the use of a surface-mount. A through-hole connection means that small wires, known as leads, are fed through the holes, with each end of the leads then soldered to the right component.
By Sasha Sara. Power. Published at Monday, December 18th 2017, 20:48:32 PM. There are many new regulators which have tighter output tolerances (better than 2% is common), achieved through the use of a laser-trim process. Also, many of the new regulators have separate output specifications that cover room temperature/full operating temperature range, and full-load/light-load conditions.
By Madeleine Catherine. Circuit. Published at Monday, December 18th 2017, 20:03:13 PM. Voltage and current sources can be independent or dependent. Their respective circuit symbols. Independent sources are usually shown as a circle while dependent sources are usually shown as a diamond-shape. Independent sources can have a DC output or a functional output; some examples are a sine wave, square wave, impulse, and linear ramp. Dependent sources can be used to implement a voltage or current which is a function of some other voltage or current in the circuit. Dependent sources are often used to model active circuits that are used for signal amplification.
By Valentine Sybille. Circuit. Published at Monday, December 18th 2017, 19:36:26 PM. Surface mount PCBs do not utilize wires as connectors. Instead, many small leads are soldered directly to the board, meaning that the board itself is used as a wiring surface for the different components. This allows circuits to be completed using less space, freeing up space to allow the board to complete more functions, usually at higher speeds and a lighter weight than a through-hole board would allow.
By Lydie Honorine. Diagram. Published at Monday, December 18th 2017, 19:09:01 PM. A schematic shows connections in a circuit in a way that is clear and standardized. It is a way of communicating to other engineers exactly what components are involved in a circuit as well as how they are connected. A good schematic will show component names and values, and provide labels for sections or components to help communicate the intended purpose. Note how connections on wires (or "nets") are shown using dots and non-connections are shown without a dot.
By Cyrielle Marjolaine. Diagram. Published at Monday, December 18th 2017, 18:53:21 PM. Wiring diagrams use standard symbols for wiring devices, usually different from those used on schematic diagrams. The electrical symbols not only show where something is to be installed, but also what type of device is being installed. For example, a surface ceiling light is shown by one symbol, a recessed ceiling light has a different symbol, and a surface fluorescent light has another symbol. Each type of switch has a different symbol and so do the various outlets. There are symbols that show the location of smoke detectors, the doorbell chime, and thermostat. On large projects symbols may be numbered to show, for example, the panel board and circuit to which the device connects, and also to identify which of several types of fixture are to be installed at that location.
By Cyrielle Marjolaine. Diagram. Published at Monday, December 18th 2017, 18:48:50 PM. In contrast to digital circuits, analog circuits use signals whose voltage levels are not constrained to two distinct levels, but instead can assume any value between Vdd and GND. Many input devices, particularly those using electronic sensors (e.g., microphones, cameras, thermometers, pressure sensors, motion and proximity detectors, etc.) produce analog voltages at their outputs. In modern electronic devices, it is likely that such signals will be converted to digital signals before they are used within the device. For example, a digital voice-memo recording device uses an analog microphone circuit to convert sound pressure waves into voltage waves on an internal circuit node. A special circuit called an analog-to-digital converter, or ADC, converts that analog voltage to a binary number that can be represented as a bus in a digital circuit. An ADC functions by taking samples of the input analog signal, measuring the magnitude of the input voltage signal (usually with reference to GND), and assigning a binary number to the measured magnitude. Once an analog signal has been converted to a binary number, a bus can carry that digital information around a circuit. In a similar manner, digital signals can be reconstituted into analog signals using a digital-to-analog converter. Thus, a binary number that represents a sample of an audio waveform can be converted to an analog signal that can, for example, drive a speaker.
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