By Madeleine Catherine. Circuit. Publised at Tuesday, August 29th 2017, 06:39:51 AM. Impedance essentially can be viewed as frequency-dependent resistance. While resistance of a circuit is the instantaneous ratio between voltage and current, impedance of a circuit is the ratio between voltage and current for steady-state sinusoidal signals, which can vary with of frequency. As the later parts of this section will show, the voltage and current caused by applying a steady-state sinusoidal signal to any combination of resistors, capacitors, and inductors, are related by a constant factor and a phase shift. Therefore, impedance can be expressed by a complex constant using an extended version Ohm’s law.
By Valentine Sybille. Circuit. Published at Monday, December 18th 2017, 04:45:11 AM. In the hydrodynamic analogy of electronic circuits, resistors are equivalent to a pipe. As fluid flows through a pipe, frictional drag forces at the walls dissipate energy from the flow and thus reducing the pressure, or equivalently, the potential energy of the fluid in the pipe. A small resistor is equivalent to a large diameter pipe that will allow for a high flow rate, whereas a large resistor is equivalent to a small diameter pipe that greatly constricts the flow rate.
By Cyrielle Marjolaine. Circuit. Published at Sunday, December 17th 2017, 15:08:00 PM. The concept of complex impedance introduces a unified representation for resistors, capacitors, and inductors, whereby a circuit’s frequency response from input to output can be determined using KVL and KCL, where each element is assigned the appropriate impedance. The key assumption to this point is that the input to the circuit must consist solely of DC and/or sinusoidal signals. Now, this analysis is be extended to include arbitrary input signals by using the mathematical techniques of Laplace transforms.
By Bertille Solange. Power. Published at Sunday, December 17th 2017, 14:30:46 PM. The Low-dropout (LDO) regulator differs from the Standard regulator in that the pass device of the LDO is made up of only a single PNP transistor.
By Jessica Mireille. Circuit. Published at Sunday, December 17th 2017, 11:52:33 AM. Voltage and current sources can be independent or dependent. Their respective circuit symbols. Independent sources are usually shown as a circle while dependent sources are usually shown as a diamond-shape. Independent sources can have a DC output or a functional output; some examples are a sine wave, square wave, impulse, and linear ramp. Dependent sources can be used to implement a voltage or current which is a function of some other voltage or current in the circuit. Dependent sources are often used to model active circuits that are used for signal amplification.
By Madeleine Catherine. Circuit. Published at Sunday, December 17th 2017, 05:58:47 AM. For DC signals, the linearity of the system implies that H is independent of Vin. For dynamic signals, the transfer function cannot in general be described simply. However, if the input is a sinusoidal signal then the output must also be a sinusoidal signal with the same frequency but possibly a different amplitude and phase. In other words, a linear system can only modify the amplitude and phase of a sinusoidal input.
By Madeleine Catherine. Power. Published at Sunday, December 17th 2017, 00:51:45 AM. Line regulation refers to the ability of the voltage regulator to reject variations in the applied voltage (often referred to as the line voltage because it is usually derived from the AC power line) and is expressed as a percentage. Ideally, the line regulation would be zero percent meaning that the output voltage is perfectly independent of the line voltage. The equation for line regulation is as follows. Note that line voltage can also mean the DC input voltage for some applications. Line regulation always refers to whatever the input of interest is. Line regulation is expressed in percent and the ideal value is zero meaning that the output voltage is completely independent of the input voltage.
By Madeleine Catherine. Circuit. Published at Sunday, December 17th 2017, 00:43:41 AM. An often used and sometimes confusing term in electronic circuits is the word ground. The ground is a circuit node to which all voltages in a circuit are referenced. In a constant voltage supply circuit, one terminal from each voltage supply is typically connected to ground, or is grounded. For example, the negative terminal of a positive power supply is usually connected to ground so that any current drawn out of the positive terminal can be put back into the negative terminal via ground.
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