By Jessica Mireille. Power. Publised at Monday, December 18th 2017, 08:45:14 AM. There are two types of voltage regulators, shunt and series. The name comes from where the control element (typically a transistor) is placed. Except for the special case of a Zener diode shunt regulator which is open-loop, virtually all voltage regulators are closed-loop high-gain proportional control systems.
By Bertille Solange. Diagram. Published at Friday, December 22nd 2017, 11:10:29 AM. In contrast to digital circuits, analog circuits use signals whose voltage levels are not constrained to two distinct levels, but instead can assume any value between Vdd and GND. Many input devices, particularly those using electronic sensors (e.g., microphones, cameras, thermometers, pressure sensors, motion and proximity detectors, etc.) produce analog voltages at their outputs. In modern electronic devices, it is likely that such signals will be converted to digital signals before they are used within the device. For example, a digital voice-memo recording device uses an analog microphone circuit to convert sound pressure waves into voltage waves on an internal circuit node. A special circuit called an analog-to-digital converter, or ADC, converts that analog voltage to a binary number that can be represented as a bus in a digital circuit. An ADC functions by taking samples of the input analog signal, measuring the magnitude of the input voltage signal (usually with reference to GND), and assigning a binary number to the measured magnitude. Once an analog signal has been converted to a binary number, a bus can carry that digital information around a circuit. In a similar manner, digital signals can be reconstituted into analog signals using a digital-to-analog converter. Thus, a binary number that represents a sample of an audio waveform can be converted to an analog signal that can, for example, drive a speaker.
By Cyrielle Marjolaine. Diagram. Published at Friday, December 22nd 2017, 10:36:12 AM. A schematic shows connections in a circuit in a way that is clear and standardized. It is a way of communicating to other engineers exactly what components are involved in a circuit as well as how they are connected. A good schematic will show component names and values, and provide labels for sections or components to help communicate the intended purpose. Note how connections on wires (or "nets") are shown using dots and non-connections are shown without a dot.
By Bertille Solange. Diagram. Published at Friday, December 22nd 2017, 10:35:50 AM. In a digital circuit, power supply voltage levels are constrained to two distinct values – “logic high voltage” (called LHV or Vdd) and “logic low voltage” (called LLV or GND). The GND node in any circuit is the universal reference voltage against which all other voltages are measured (in modern digital circuits, GND is typically the lowest voltage in the circuit). In a schematic, it is often difficult to show lines connecting all GND nodes; rather, any nodes labeled GND are assumed to be connected into the same node. Often, a downward pointing triangle symbol, is attached to a GND node in addition to (or instead of) the GND label. The Vdd node in a digital circuit is typically the highest voltage, and all nodes labeled Vdd are tied together into the same node. Vdd may be thought of as the “source” of positive charges in a circuit, and GND may be thought of as the “source” of negative charges in a circuit. In modern digital systems, Vdd and GND are separated by anywhere from 1 to 5 volts. Older or inexpensive circuits typically use 5 volts, while newer circuits use 1-3 volts.
By Lydie Honorine. Circuit. Published at Friday, December 22nd 2017, 09:24:31 AM. Electric circuits use electric power to perform some function, like energize a heating or lighting element, turn a motor, or create an electromagnetic filed. Electronic circuits differ from electric circuits in that they use devices that can themselves be controlled by other electric signals. Restated, electronic circuits are built from devices that use electricity to control electricity. Most electronic circuits use signals that are within 5 to 10 volts of ground; most circuits built within the past several years use signals that are within 3 to 5 volts from ground. Some electronic circuits represent information encoded as continuous voltage levels that can wander between the high and low voltage supply rails – these are called analog circuits. As an example, a sound pressure level transducer (i.e. a microphone) might drive a signal between 0V and 3.3V in direct proportion to the detected sound pressure level. In this case, the voltage signal output from the microphone is said to be an analog ifthe sound pressure wave itself. Other circuits use only two distinct voltage levels to represent information. Most often, these two voltage levels use the same voltages supplied by the power rails. In these circuits, called digital circuits, all information must be represented as binary numbers, with a signal at 0V (or ground) representing one kind of information, and a signal at 3.3V (or whatever the upper voltage supply rail provides) representing the other kind of information. In this series of modules, we will confine our discussions to digital circuits.
By Bertille Solange. Diagram. Published at Friday, December 22nd 2017, 08:20:00 AM. In a PCB that uses through-hole technology, holes are drilled through the pads so that component leads can be inserted and then fastened (soldered) in place. In a PCB that uses surface-mount technology, component leads are soldered directly to the pads on the surface. Each set of pads (or holes) in the PCB is intended to receive a particular component. To identify which component must be loaded where, reference designators are printed on the circuit board immediately adjacent to the pads using a silk-screen process. A parts list links a designated set of pads to a physical component by describing the component and assigning it a particular reference designator. The reference designators guide assemblers and testers when they are working with the PCB. Many components must be placed into the PCB in a particular orientation. By convention, components that require a particular orientation have one lead designated as pin 1. On the PCB, a square pad or silkscreen indicator typically denotes pin 1.
By Charlotte Myriam. Circuit. Published at Friday, December 22nd 2017, 07:40:14 AM. An intuitive way to understand the behavior of voltage and current in electronic circuits is to use hydrodynamic systems as an analogue. In this system, voltage is represented by gravitational potential or height of the fluid column, and current is represented by the fluid flow rate.
By Charlotte Myriam. Circuit. Published at Thursday, December 21st 2017, 23:38:50 PM. Electronic signals are represented either by voltage or current. The timedependent characteristics of voltage or current signals can take a number of forms including DC, sinusoidal (also known as AC), square wave, linear ramps, and pulsewidth modulated signals. Sinusoidal signals are perhaps the most important signal forms since once the circuit response to sinusoidal signals are known, the result can be generalized to predict how the circuit will respond to a much greater variety of signals using the mathematical tools of Fourier and Laplace transforms.
Altrushare - Wiring Diagram Gallery
Copyright © 2003 - 2018 Domain Media. All sponsored products, company names, brand names, trademarks and logos arethe property of their respective owners.