By Sasha Sara. Diagram. Publised at Tuesday, July 25th 2017, 11:46:43 AM. In a PCB that uses through-hole technology, holes are drilled through the pads so that component leads can be inserted and then fastened (soldered) in place. In a PCB that uses surface-mount technology, component leads are soldered directly to the pads on the surface. Each set of pads (or holes) in the PCB is intended to receive a particular component. To identify which component must be loaded where, reference designators are printed on the circuit board immediately adjacent to the pads using a silk-screen process. A parts list links a designated set of pads to a physical component by describing the component and assigning it a particular reference designator. The reference designators guide assemblers and testers when they are working with the PCB. Many components must be placed into the PCB in a particular orientation. By convention, components that require a particular orientation have one lead designated as pin 1. On the PCB, a square pad or silkscreen indicator typically denotes pin 1.
By Lydie Honorine. Circuit. Published at Friday, December 22nd 2017, 23:34:06 PM. For DC signals, the linearity of the system implies that H is independent of Vin. For dynamic signals, the transfer function cannot in general be described simply. However, if the input is a sinusoidal signal then the output must also be a sinusoidal signal with the same frequency but possibly a different amplitude and phase. In other words, a linear system can only modify the amplitude and phase of a sinusoidal input.
By Cyrielle Marjolaine. Motor. Published at Friday, December 22nd 2017, 23:06:28 PM. At this point it is important to introduce the concept of overdrive ration. This is the ration between the power supply voltage and the motor’s rated voltage. An empirically derived maximum is 25:1, meaning the power supply voltage should never exceed 25 times the motor’s rated voltage or 32 times the square root of motor inductance. Below is a graph of measured iron losses for a 4A, 3V motor. Notice in Figure 16 how the iron losses range from insignificant to being the major cause of heating in the motor compared to a constant 12W copper loss (4A times 3V).
By Cyrielle Marjolaine. Diagram. Published at Friday, December 22nd 2017, 21:40:25 PM. The slide switches are also known as “single throw-double pole” (STDP) switches, because only one switch (or throw) exists, but two positions (or poles) are available (a pole is an electrical contact to which the switch can make contact). These switches can be set to output either Vdd (when the actuator is closest to the board’s edge) or GND. The push button switches are also known as “momentary” contact buttons, because they only make contact while they are actively being pressed – they output a GND at rest, and a Vdd only when they are being pressed. The figure below shows typically pushbutton and slide switch circuits used on Digilent boards.
By Alix Loane. Circuit. Published at Friday, December 22nd 2017, 21:26:48 PM. The concept of complex impedance introduces a unified representation for resistors, capacitors, and inductors, whereby a circuit’s frequency response from input to output can be determined using KVL and KCL, where each element is assigned the appropriate impedance. The key assumption to this point is that the input to the circuit must consist solely of DC and/or sinusoidal signals. Now, this analysis is be extended to include arbitrary input signals by using the mathematical techniques of Laplace transforms.
By Madeleine Catherine. Motor. Published at Friday, December 22nd 2017, 21:10:31 PM. The easiest factor in choosing a power supply is its current rating, which is based on your motor ratings. A motor control will always draw less than 2/3 of the motor’s rated current when it is parallel (or half-winding) connected and 1/3 of the motor’s rated current when it is series (or full-winding) connected. That is to say, a 6 amp per phase motor will require a 4 amp power supply when wired in parallel and a 2 amp power supply when wired in series. If multiple motors and drives are used, add the current requirements of each to arrive at the total power supply current rating.
By Valentine Sybille. Circuit. Published at Friday, December 22nd 2017, 20:36:12 PM. When multiple components are connected in parallel, the voltage drop is the same across all components. When multiple components are connected in series, the total voltage is the sum of the voltages across each component. These two statements can be generalized as Kirchoff’s Voltage Law (KVL), which states that the sum of voltages around any closed loop (e.g. starting at one node, and ending at the same node) is zero.
By Valentine Sybille. Circuit. Published at Friday, December 22nd 2017, 19:21:35 PM. Ohm’s law states that the current through a conductor between two points is directly proportional to the potential difference across those two points. It means that more the resistance lesser current would flow. I=V/R This would apply to any component of a circuit. For example conductors would increase the current flow and the inductors would decrease it.
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